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allows RBC's to transport oxygen where it's needed


play a secondary role in defending against bacterial attacks

blood-clotting mechanism

if injury is extensive, this mechanism is activated to assist

normal platelets

adhere to damaged capillary wall and underlying collagen fibers, both of which have a negative charge


help maintain osmotic balance of the blood

stage 1 of blood clotting

production of thromboplastin activator by having chemicals present in the blood (intrinsic pathway)

stage 2 of blood clotting

conversion of prothrombin to thrombin

stage 3 of blood clotting

conversion of fibrinogen to thrombin and production of fibrin clot

substances that activate profibrinolysin

additional factors that aid in clot dissolution


consists of plasma and the formed elements


a complex transport medium that performs vital pick-up and delivery services for the body


the keystone of the body's heat-regulating mechanism


gender that has about 5-6 L of blood

gender, age, body composition, and method of measurement

ways that blood volume varies

mature RBC

has no nucleus and is shaped like tiny biconcave disks


doesn't contain ribosomes, mitochondria, and other organelles typical of most body cells


primary component of each RBCs


most numerous of the formed elements in the blood


plays a critical role in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body

transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body

both of these functions depend on hemoglobin

carbonic anhydrase

In RBCs, this catalyzes a reaction that joins carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid

bicarbonate ions

ions generated by the dissociation of acid and generation of H+, which diffuses out of the RBCs and into the blood plasma


200-300 million molecules of these are packed within each RBC

hemoglobin molecule

consists of four globin chains


known as a chain


formed by one hemoglobin molecule and 4 oxygen molecules

man; woman

a ________'s blood usually contains more hemoglobin than a _________'s


a reduction in the number or volume of functional RBCs in a given unit of whole blood


the entire process of RBC formation

hematopoietic stem cells

nucleated cells in the adult where erythrocytes begin their maturation sequence in the red bone marrow

hematopoietic stem cells

cells that go through several stages of development to become erythrocytes


the entire maturation process requires about _______ days


normally, every mintue of every day of our adult lives, more than 200 billion of these cells are formed to replace an equal number destroyed during that brief time

homeostatic mechanisms

mechanisms that must operate to balance the number of cells formed against the number destroyed


the life span of RBCs circulating in the bloodstream averages about ______ - ______ days

macrophage cells

cells that phagocytose the aged, abnormal, or fragmented red blood cells

phagocytosing of the aged, abnormal, or fragmented RBCs

this process results in the breakdown of hemoglobin, with the release of amino acids, iron, and bilirubin

neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils

the 3 granulocytes

monocytes and lymphocytes

the 2 agranulocytes


granulocyte with numbers avergaing about 65% of the total WBC count in a normal blood sample


highly mobile, active phagocytic cells that can diapedesis


what the cytoplasmic granules in neutrophils contain


granulocyte that accounts for about 2-5% of circulating WBCs


numerous in body areas such as the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts


weak phagocytes that are capable of ingesting inflammatory chemicals and proteins associated with antigen-antibody reaction complexes.


aid in protection against infections caused by parasitic worms and involvement in allergic reactions


0.5-1% of the total leukocyte count


cells that are both motile and capable of diapedesis


the cytoplasmic granules of these WBCs contain histamine and heparin


the smallest of all leukocytes and next to neutrophils, these are the most numerous WBCs


these account for about 25% of all the leukocyte population

T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes

have important roles in immunity

T lymphocytes

funtion by directly attacking an infected or cancerous cell

B lymphocytes

produce antibodies against specific antigens


the largest of the leukocytes and are motile and highly phagocytic cells


one cubic millimeter of normal blood usually contains about ____ to ________ leukocytes, with different percentages of each type

because they change in certain abnormal conditions

why WBC numbers have clinical significance

granular and agranular leukocytes

cells that form from the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cell

neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and a few lymphocytes and monocytes

cells that originate in red bone marrow

most lymphocytes and monocytes

cells that derive from hematopoietic adult stem cells in lymphatic tissue


in circulating blood, these are small, nearly colorless bodies that usually appear as irregular spindles or oval disks

agglutination,adhesiveness, and aggregation

three important physical propertires of platelets

platelet counts

adults contain on average about 250,000/mm3 of these in the blood


normal range of platelets in a healthy adult

hemostasis and blood coagulation

what platelets play an important role in


refers to the stoppage of blood flow

hemostatic platelet plug

formed within 1-5 seconds after injury to a blood capillary; platelets will adhere to the damaged lining of the vessel and to each other in order to form this structure

the formation of a temporary platelet plug

important step in hemostasis

sticky platelets

form a physical plug and secrete chemicals involved in the coagulation proccess


have a short life span ( an average of about 7 days)

observing the antigens present on RBC membranes

how we name blood types

the presence or absence of antigens

what determines a person's blood type in the ABO system

one of the 4 ABO blood types

what every person's blood belongs to

antigens present on RBC membranes

blood types are named according to..

type A blood

antigen A on RBCs

type B blood

antigen B on RBCs

type AB blood

both antigen A and antigen B on RBCs

type O blood

neither antigen A nor antigen B on RBCs

RH-positive blood

an RH antigen is present on its RBCs

RH-negative blood

blood whose red cells have no Rh antigens present on them

anti-Rh antibodies

what blood doesn't normally contain

anti-Rh antibodies

can appear in the blood of an Rh-negative person, provided Rh-positive RBC's have at some time entered the bloodstream


the liquid part of the blood that is clear & straw-colored


consists of 90% water and 10% solutes

solutes and proteins

consist of 6% - 8% of the plasma


plays a key role in the blood-clotting mechanism


function as essential components of the immunity mechanism

plasma proteins

have an essential part in maintaining normal circulation

to plug ruptured vessels to stop bleeding and prevent loss of a vital body

primary purpose of blood coagulation

mechanism of blood clotting

mechanism that must be swift and sure when needed

prothrombin, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrin

four components critical to coagulation

stage 1 of blood clotting

(extrinsic pathway) chemicals are released from damaged tissues

opposes clot formation

perfectly smooth surface of the normal endothelial lining of blood vessel


these do not adhere to healthy endothelium


oppose (inactivate) thrombin & prevent thrombin from converting fibrinogen to fibrin ; ex: heprin

two conditions that favor thrombus function

a rough spot in the endothelium & abnormally slow blood flow


the physiological mechanism that dissolves clots

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