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97 terms

Ch 17-blood

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hemoglobin
allows RBC's to transport oxygen where it's needed
platelets
play a secondary role in defending against bacterial attacks
blood-clotting mechanism
if injury is extensive, this mechanism is activated to assist
normal platelets
adhere to damaged capillary wall and underlying collagen fibers, both of which have a negative charge
albumins
help maintain osmotic balance of the blood
stage 1 of blood clotting
production of thromboplastin activator by having chemicals present in the blood (intrinsic pathway)
stage 2 of blood clotting
conversion of prothrombin to thrombin
stage 3 of blood clotting
conversion of fibrinogen to thrombin and production of fibrin clot
substances that activate profibrinolysin
additional factors that aid in clot dissolution
blood
consists of plasma and the formed elements
blood
a complex transport medium that performs vital pick-up and delivery services for the body
blood
the keystone of the body's heat-regulating mechanism
males
gender that has about 5-6 L of blood
gender, age, body composition, and method of measurement
ways that blood volume varies
mature RBC
has no nucleus and is shaped like tiny biconcave disks
erythrocyte
doesn't contain ribosomes, mitochondria, and other organelles typical of most body cells
hemoglobin
primary component of each RBCs
RBCs
most numerous of the formed elements in the blood
RBCs
plays a critical role in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body
transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body
both of these functions depend on hemoglobin
carbonic anhydrase
In RBCs, this catalyzes a reaction that joins carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid
bicarbonate ions
ions generated by the dissociation of acid and generation of H+, which diffuses out of the RBCs and into the blood plasma
hemoglobin
200-300 million molecules of these are packed within each RBC
hemoglobin molecule
consists of four globin chains
globin
known as a chain
oxyhemoglobin
formed by one hemoglobin molecule and 4 oxygen molecules
man; woman
a ________'s blood usually contains more hemoglobin than a _________'s
anemai
a reduction in the number or volume of functional RBCs in a given unit of whole blood
erthryopoesis
the entire process of RBC formation
hematopoietic stem cells
nucleated cells in the adult where erythrocytes begin their maturation sequence in the red bone marrow
hematopoietic stem cells
cells that go through several stages of development to become erythrocytes
4
the entire maturation process requires about _______ days
RBCs
normally, every mintue of every day of our adult lives, more than 200 billion of these cells are formed to replace an equal number destroyed during that brief time
homeostatic mechanisms
mechanisms that must operate to balance the number of cells formed against the number destroyed
105-120
the life span of RBCs circulating in the bloodstream averages about ______ - ______ days
macrophage cells
cells that phagocytose the aged, abnormal, or fragmented red blood cells
phagocytosing of the aged, abnormal, or fragmented RBCs
this process results in the breakdown of hemoglobin, with the release of amino acids, iron, and bilirubin
neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils
the 3 granulocytes
monocytes and lymphocytes
the 2 agranulocytes
neutrophil
granulocyte with numbers avergaing about 65% of the total WBC count in a normal blood sample
neutrophils
highly mobile, active phagocytic cells that can diapedesis
lysosomes
what the cytoplasmic granules in neutrophils contain
eosinophils
granulocyte that accounts for about 2-5% of circulating WBCs
eosinophils
numerous in body areas such as the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts
eosinophils
weak phagocytes that are capable of ingesting inflammatory chemicals and proteins associated with antigen-antibody reaction complexes.
eosinophils
aid in protection against infections caused by parasitic worms and involvement in allergic reactions
basophils
0.5-1% of the total leukocyte count
basophils
cells that are both motile and capable of diapedesis
basophils
the cytoplasmic granules of these WBCs contain histamine and heparin
lymphocytes
the smallest of all leukocytes and next to neutrophils, these are the most numerous WBCs
lymphocytes
these account for about 25% of all the leukocyte population
T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes
have important roles in immunity
T lymphocytes
funtion by directly attacking an infected or cancerous cell
B lymphocytes
produce antibodies against specific antigens
monocytes
the largest of the leukocytes and are motile and highly phagocytic cells
5000-9000
one cubic millimeter of normal blood usually contains about ____ to ________ leukocytes, with different percentages of each type
because they change in certain abnormal conditions
why WBC numbers have clinical significance
granular and agranular leukocytes
cells that form from the undifferentiated hematopoietic stem cell
neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, and a few lymphocytes and monocytes
cells that originate in red bone marrow
most lymphocytes and monocytes
cells that derive from hematopoietic adult stem cells in lymphatic tissue
platelets
in circulating blood, these are small, nearly colorless bodies that usually appear as irregular spindles or oval disks
agglutination,adhesiveness, and aggregation
three important physical propertires of platelets
platelet counts
adults contain on average about 250,000/mm3 of these in the blood
150,000-400,000
normal range of platelets in a healthy adult
hemostasis and blood coagulation
what platelets play an important role in
hemostasis
refers to the stoppage of blood flow
hemostatic platelet plug
formed within 1-5 seconds after injury to a blood capillary; platelets will adhere to the damaged lining of the vessel and to each other in order to form this structure
the formation of a temporary platelet plug
important step in hemostasis
sticky platelets
form a physical plug and secrete chemicals involved in the coagulation proccess
platelets
have a short life span ( an average of about 7 days)
observing the antigens present on RBC membranes
how we name blood types
the presence or absence of antigens
what determines a person's blood type in the ABO system
one of the 4 ABO blood types
what every person's blood belongs to
antigens present on RBC membranes
blood types are named according to..
type A blood
antigen A on RBCs
type B blood
antigen B on RBCs
type AB blood
both antigen A and antigen B on RBCs
type O blood
neither antigen A nor antigen B on RBCs
RH-positive blood
an RH antigen is present on its RBCs
RH-negative blood
blood whose red cells have no Rh antigens present on them
anti-Rh antibodies
what blood doesn't normally contain
anti-Rh antibodies
can appear in the blood of an Rh-negative person, provided Rh-positive RBC's have at some time entered the bloodstream
plasma
the liquid part of the blood that is clear & straw-colored
plasma
consists of 90% water and 10% solutes
solutes and proteins
consist of 6% - 8% of the plasma
fibrinogen
plays a key role in the blood-clotting mechanism
globulins
function as essential components of the immunity mechanism
plasma proteins
have an essential part in maintaining normal circulation
to plug ruptured vessels to stop bleeding and prevent loss of a vital body
primary purpose of blood coagulation
mechanism of blood clotting
mechanism that must be swift and sure when needed
prothrombin, thrombin, fibrinogen, fibrin
four components critical to coagulation
stage 1 of blood clotting
(extrinsic pathway) chemicals are released from damaged tissues
opposes clot formation
perfectly smooth surface of the normal endothelial lining of blood vessel
platelets
these do not adhere to healthy endothelium
antithrombins
oppose (inactivate) thrombin & prevent thrombin from converting fibrinogen to fibrin ; ex: heprin
two conditions that favor thrombus function
a rough spot in the endothelium & abnormally slow blood flow
fibrinolysis
the physiological mechanism that dissolves clots