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apush unit 8
Terms in this set (72)
Election 1920 and Harding
Jubilant Republicans gathered in Chicago in June 1920 with wayward bull moosers back in the corral (after Roosevelt's death in 1919) and the senatorial Old Guard back in the saddle. The convention devised a masterfully ambiguous platform that could appeal to both pro-League and anti-League sentiment in the party. The nominee would run on a teeter-totter rather than a platform. The Republicans nominated Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio for president and Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts as VP.
With newly enfranchised women swelling the vote totals, Harding won with over 7 million votes.
Teapot Dome Scandal
A government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve.
Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
In 1921, President Warren G. Harding appointed Mellon to lead the Treasury.
Mellon sought to increase revenue by lowering tax rates in the hopes of both stimulating economic activity as well as increasing overall tax revenue by encouraging more people to actually pay their taxes.
A group of American writers that rebelled against America's lack of cosmopolitan culture in the early 20th century.
Many moved to cultural centers such as London in Paris in search for literary freedom. Prominent writers included T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and Ernest Hemingway among others.
The period from 1920-1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the US by a constitutional amendment; Bill passed by Congress to enforce the language of the 18th Amendment.
This bill made the manufacture & distribution of alcohol illegal within the borders of the US.
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets:
Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
Henry Ford and the Assembly Line
(431,433) 1896 Produced first of famous cars...1917 almost 5 millions automobiles in America. Introduced moving assembly line for his automobile plants in 1914.
Enabled him to raise wages and reduce hours while cutting base price of Model T (became a standard for other industries)
The Jazz Singer
1927 - The first movie with sound; this "talkie" was about the life of famous jazz singer; Al Jolson.
Young Jakie Rabinowitz (Bobby Gordon) loves jazz and ragtime, and wants to be a performer. But his father (Warner Oland) is a cantor, and he orders his son to carry on the family tradition
A "silent comedian," this movie star continued to lengthen the silent film style and offer an alternative to the sound film with his trademark.
Tattered suit, derby hat, and cane, playing the "little tramp" who made audiences laugh with his silent jokes.
A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits.
His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.
Sacco and Vanzetti Case
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree; Mass. The trial lasted from 1920-1927.
Convicted on circumstantial evidence; many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities.
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer
federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals and the headquarters of radical organization in 32 cities
a highly publicized trial in 1925
John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
The Great Migration, sometimes known as the Great Northward Migration or the Black Migration, was the movement of 6 million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States
carefree young women with short, "bobbed" hair, heavy makeup, and short skirts. The flapper symbolized the new "liberated" woman of the 1920s.
Many people saw the bold, boyish look and shocking behavior of flappers as a sign of changing morals. Though hardly typical of American women, the flapper image reinforced the idea that women now had more freedom.
Black literary and artistic movement centered in Harlem that lasted from the 1920s into the early 1930s that both celebrated and lamented black life in America
Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston were two famous writers of this movement.
African American leader durin the 1920s.
founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and advocated mass migration of African Americans back to Africa. Was deported to Jamaica in 1927.
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)
he went from obscurity as a U.S. Air Mail pilot to instantaneous world fame by winning the Orteig Prize for making a nonstop flight from New York to Paris
He was a famous baseball player who played for the Yankees.
He helped developed a rising popularity for professional sports.
A plan to revive the German economy, the United States loans Germany money which then can pay reparations to England and France, who can then pay back their loans from the U.S.
This circular flow of money was a success.
Rise of Fascism
emphasized importance of race and nation over individual.
Took hold in G where people desperately needed a savior (economy in shambles from reparations)
Causes of the Great Depression
Factories and farms produce more goods than people can buy.
Banks make loans that borrowers cannot pay back.
After the stock market crash, many businesses cannot find people who will invest in their growth.
the president who was in office when the depression started.
He believed that if the government got involved it would only make the depression worse.
charged a high tax for imports.
leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation
Shanty towns that the unemployed built in the cities during the early years of the Depression
name given to them shows that the people blamed Hoover directly for the Depression.
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C.
1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
Election of 1932
Democrat Franklin D. Roosevelt, beat the Republican, Herbert Hoover, who was running for reelection.
FDR promised relief for the unemployed, help for farmers, and a balanced budget.
Roosevelt and the New Deal
In 1933, President Roosevelt launched the New Deal, an ambitious program to bring relief to the jobless, spur economic recovery, and prevent future depression.
Some critics felt that the New Deal did not do enough to improve conditions.
Commencement of Terms; Sessions of Congress
Death or Disqualification of President-Elect
Amendment which ended the Prohibition of alcohol in the US,
repealing the 18th amendment
closed all banks until gov. examiners could investigate their financial condition
only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen
The brief period during 1815 when Napoleon made his last bid for power
deposing the French King and again becoming Emperor of France
Relief, Recovery, Reform
Three components of the New Deal. The first "R" was the effort to help the one-third of the population that was hardest hit by the depression, & included social security and unemployment insurance. The second "R" was the effort in numerous programs to restore the economy to normal health, achieved by 1937.
Finally, the third "R" government intervention stabilize the economy by balancing the interests of farmers, business and labor. There was no major anti-trust program.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
A federal guarantee of savings bank deposits initially of up to $2500, raised to $5000 in 1934, and frequently thereafter; continues today with a limit of $100,000
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II
Civilian Conservation Corps.
It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
Public Works Administration.
Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc.
Work Progress Administration
Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
The Tennessee Valley Authority federation was created in 1933
provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression
Indian Reorganization Act
1934 - Restored tribal ownership of lands
recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining,
to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
Social Security Act
(FDR) 1935, guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65
set up federal-state system of unemployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health
Francis Perkins, Secretary of Labor
Roosevelt's Secretary of Labor and first woman cabinet member in U.S. history.
Perkins championed many of the policies that became part of the New Deal, and established the Social Security and Fair Labor Standards Acts.
Court Packing Proposal
In the wake of Supreme Court decisions that declared key pieces of New Deal legislation unconstitutional, Roosevelt proposed increasing the number of justices.
If a justice did not retire at age seventy, the President could appoint an additional justice up to a maximum of six.
the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1968
made the Democratic Party the majority party during that period
As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs.
It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930
lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
founded fascism and ruled Italy for almost 21 years, most of that time as dictator.
He dreamed of building Italy into a great empire, but he led his nation to defeat in World War II (1939-1945) and was executed by his own people.
International organization founded in 1945 to promote world peace and cooperation.
It replaced the League of Nations.
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta.
Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Hitler and the Nazi Party
Perceived severity of Versailles meant all Germans (even democratic ones) wanted to reverse
Hitler became the 55th member of a new party the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP)-later renamed the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartai (NSDAP) in 1920
At the Munich Conference, Britain and France supported the policy of appeasement
giving in to Hitler's demands for the Sudetenland.
typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland in 1939
Axis and Allied Powers
These two powers were opposing alliances during World War II.
The Axis powers included Germany, Italy, and Japan. The Allied powers were the U.S., Great Britain, France, Russia and other countries opposed to the Axis.
Cash and Carry Policy
1939. Law passed by Congress which allowed a nation at war to purchase goods and arms in US as long as they paid cash and carried merchandise on their own ships.
This benefited the Allies, because Britain was dominant naval power.
made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic
This general was premier of Japan during World War II while this man was dictator of the country.
He gave his approval for the attack on Pearl Harbor and played a major role in Japan's military decisions until he resigned in 1944
1940 - U.S. agreed to "lend" its older destroyers to Great Britain.
Signaled the end of U.S. neutrality in the war.
Election of 1940
Rossevelt (dem) vs. Wendell Wilkie (rep), Roosevelt wins ; FDR had to declare that he would not send Americans to war in order to win
greatly plagued the years before WWII ; won in a landslide ; first time a president was elected for a third term
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100.
In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
The bombing of Pearl Harbor created widespread fear that the Japanese living in the U.S. were actually spies.
FDR issued executive order 9066, which moved all Japanese and people of Japanese descent living on the west coast of the U.S. into internment camps in the interior of the U.S.
War Labor Board
Acted as a supreme court for labor cases.
Did more harm than good when it tried to limit wages, which led to strikes.
Office of Price Administration
Instituted in 1942, this agency was in charge of stabilizing prices and rents and preventing speculation, profiteering, hoarding and price administration.
The OPA froze wages and prices and initiated a rationing program for items such as gas, oil, butter, meat, sugar, coffee and shoes in order to support the war effort and prevent inflation.
Gens, Eisenhower, Patten, MacArthur
(FDR) , June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France.
More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day's end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy.
City in Russia, site of a Red Army victory over the Germany army in 1942-1943.
The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. Today Volgograd.
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns.
He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
A famous battle which was turning point
American naval forces defeated Japanese naval forces.
The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan.
On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdamn, outside Berlin, in July, 1945.
Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb.
Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
(FDR following death) nuclear attacks during World War II
against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
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