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social studies


a sphere on which a map (especially of the earth) is represented


an imaginary line around the Earth forming the great circle that is equidistant from the north and south poles

prime meridian

meridian at zero degree longitude from which east and west are reckoned (usually the Greenwich longitude in England)


Sections of the Earth divided by the Equator and Prime Meridian (Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western)

northern hemisphere

the hemisphere north of the equator

southern hemisphere

the hemisphere south of the equator

eastern hemisphere

The hemisphere east of the Prime Meridian.

western hemisphere

West of the Prime Meridian


an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator


Imaginary lines on the globe that run up and down ( north to south)


another name for lines of latitude


used to measure temperature, latitude, longitude, right ascsension, and declination


an imaginary circle passing through any place on the earth's surface and through the North and South poles.

political map

A map showing units such as countries, states, provinces, districts, etc. Each is normally a different color


tells what the map is about


are lines small drawings or fields of color that stand for something else


explanatory list of symbols on a map


a small map in a box or circle

physical map

A map that shows mountains, hills, plains, rivers, lakes, oceans, etc.

compass rose

A tool on a map showing cardinal (N,E,S,W) and intermediate (NE,SE,NW,SW) directions.

cardinal directions

north, south, east, west

intermediate directions

Northeast, Southeast, Northwest, Southwest


a set of lines marked off in miles and kilometers


a small map or picture set within a larger one

time zone map

map showing the world's or any country's time zones


height of land above sea level


the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time

road map

a map showing roads


is the way of life for a group of people


important beliefs

ethnic group

Group of people who share common ancestry, language, religion, customs, or combination of such characteristics


People who settle in a country they weren't born in.

line graph

A graph that uses line segments to show changes that occur over time

circle graph

a graph that shows parts of a whole as percentages


in democracy people have power to make decisions about government


A form of government in which citizens choose their leaders by voting


law determining the fundamental political principles of a government

abraham lincoln

16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)


a native or naturalized member of a state or other political community

john f. kennedy

president during part of the cold war and especially during the superpower rivalry and the cuban missile crisis. he was the president who went on tv and told the public about hte crisis and allowed the leader of the soviet uinon to withdraw their missiles. other events, which were during his terms was the building of the berlin wall, the space race, and early events of the Vietnamese war.

private property

property owned by individuals or companies, not by the government or the people as a whole


a system of producing and distributing goods and serivices

free enterprise

economic system in which individuals and businesses are allowed to compete for profit with a minimum of government interference


the amount of money left over after expenses are taken out


offering goods and services for sale


the amount of goods needed


commodities (goods or services) sold to a foreign country


a person who uses goods or services

thomas edison

Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations


someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it

madam c. j. walker

started a beauty product business with only a few dollars

supply and demand

an economic concept that states that the price of a good rises and falls depending on how many people want it (demand) and depending on how much of the good is available (supply)

imports and exports

export is any international transaction that causes goods to flow into a country; an import similarly is any international transaction that causes goods to flow out of a country


An area distinguished by a unique combination of trends or features.


the study of the earth


the business of growing crops and raising animals


supplying dry land with water by means of ditches etc

george washington carver

African American farmer and food scientist. His research improved farming in the South by developing new products using peanuts etc


the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time


rain, snow , sleet or hail that falls from the clouds to the earths surface


depending on each other to meet needs and wants


A geographic area defined by one or more characteristics that set it apart from other areas


the weather of a place over a period of time

natural recources

Resources found in nature. Land, air, water, minerals exc


a substance obtained by mining or digging in the earth

fossil fuels

a nonrenewable energy resource that forms in the Earth's crust for millions of years

nonrenewable resources

resources such as fossil fuels, which can not be made again.


the preservation and careful management of the environment and of natural resources


the area in which something exists or lives

yellowstone national park

the oldest national park in the world; has more gysers and hot springs than any other area in the world

theodore roosevelt

26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War

mount mckinley

a mountain in south central Alaska

everglades national park

a national park in Florida containing an immense subtropical wilderness with mangrove swamps and rare birds and wild animals

marjory stoneman douglas

writer who worked to preserve the Everglades. She wrote the book, River of Grass


the act of contaminating or polluting

renewable resources

a resource that can be renewed, solar, wind ext

non renewable resource

resource that can't be renewed


the area in which something exists or lives

ice age

any period of time during which glaciers covered a large part of the earth's surface


Thick sheets of ice

bering straight

seperates russia and the usa, it links the arctic ocean and the bering sea


move from one country or region to another and settle there


a tentative theory about the natural world


an object made by someone in the past


an anthropologist who studies prehistoric people and their culture


a graph that shows two kind of information about the climate of a place


an ancient settlement of southern Indians, located near present day St. Louis, it served as a trading center for 40,000 at its peak in A.D. 1200.


a formal event performed on a special occasion

four corners

a place where the states of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Arizona all meet in one place


broad, flat-topped landform with steep sides; smaller than a plateau

mesa verde

a large village built into steep cliffs


a long period without rain


1860-1942 pueblo women who worked to recreate the ANSAZI way of making pottery


a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)


a quantity much larger than is needed


to do only one job


a massive memorial with a square base and four triangular sides

valley of mexico

a fertile valley between two mountain chains in central Mexico


Capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. Its population was about 150,000 on the eve of Spanish conquest. Mexico City was constructed on its ruins. (p. 305)


group ruled by one leader


a payment made by a weaker power to a stronger power to obtain an assurance of peace and security


the condition of being owned by another person and being made to work without wages


The capital city of the Incan Empire, Located in present-day Peru


Traditional founder of the Iroquois confederation


Legendary founder of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy


group of families bound together under a single leadership


a group of people that works together for a common purpose

iroquois trail

Linked the lands of the League.

eastern woodlands cultural region

area in eastern North America that was home to many Native Americans

cultural region

an area in which a group of people share a similar culture and language

long house

large house built by Indians in which eight or ten families lived


n. Beads strung on threads, formerly used among the American Indians as currency.also given to people who have recently lost a loved one


areas of federal land set aside for American Indians

great plains

a mostly flat and grassy region of western north america


homes made of logs, earth and grass


pole-framed tents covered with skins, used by the Plains Indians


made of two crossed poles pulled behind a horse for carrying loads

lame deer montana

an annual northern cheyenne where powwows are held


Native american ceremony that often includes traditional dancing and games

southwest desert cultural region

A mostly hot and arid area settled by different tribes. of natives


house built by native americans


oraibi is a village built on a mesa.


a native american celebration meant to show wealth and divide property among the people

northwest coast cultural region

area in northwestern North America that was home to many Native Americans such as the Kwakiutl, Tlingit, and Nootka

vancouver island

an island off southwestern Canada (off the southwestern coast of British Columbia), Area where the Kwakiuti people lived.

totem pole

a tribal emblem consisting of a pillar carved and painted with totemic figures


A religious or mystical expert (male or female) who in FIRST NATIONS and INUIT societies undergoes initiation experiences in altered states of consciousness.

marco polo

Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)


the provincial capital of Veneto


Trade city in China

kublai khan

Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China

silk road

an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)

magnetic compass

device that shows which direction is north

zheng he

An imperial eunuch and Muslim, entrusted by the Ming emperor Yongle with a series of state voyages that took his gigantic ships through the Indian Ocean, from Southeast Asia to Africa.

sahara desert

the world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa


a group of traders traveling together


the first West African kingdom based on the gold and salt trade

king phillip

wamponag leader


built thousands of miles of roads


stone calender


was the aztects emporor.


a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy

louisiana purchase

territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million

louis and clark

Sent by Thomas Jefferson to Explore west of the Mississippi River (The Louisina Purchase)


first permanent English settlement, located near the Chesapeake Bay


place with little rain

mayflower compact

This document was drafted in 1620 prior to settlement by the Pilgrims at Plymouth Bay in Massachusetts. It declared that the 41 males who signed it agreed to accept majority rule and participate in a government in the best interest of all members of the colony. This agreement set the precedent for later documents outlining commonwealth rule.


the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620

what is a common trait of plants that live in a desert ecosystem

they have a very little need for water

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