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a subatomic particle having no electrical charge (electrically neutral) 1.7x10-24 g in nucleus
a subatomic particle with a single negative charge & a mass of about 1/2000 that of a neutron/proton, on or more move around the nucleus of an atom
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, unique for each element & designated by a superscript to the left of the element symbol
one of the several atomic forms of an element, each with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons, thus differing in atomic mass
an energy level of electrons at a characteristic average distance from the nucleus of an atom
the capacity to cause change, especially to do work (to move matter against an opposing force)
energy that matter possesses as a direct result of its location or spatial arrangement (structure)
the attraction of a given atom for the electrons of a covalent bond, some have stronger pull than others
nonpolar covalent bond
one in which electrons are shared equally between to atoms of similar electronegativity, such as O2 or H2
polar covalent bond
one between atoms that differ in electronegativity, the shared electrons are pulled closer to the more elctronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive
a type of weak chemical bond that is formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule
van der Waals interactions
weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that result from localized charge fluctuations, they occur only when atoms and molecules are very close together
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