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Exam 1 Sociology of mental health
Terms in this set (86)
Definition of Mental Health
a state of successful performance of mental function, resulting in productive activities, fulfilling relationships with people, and the ability to adopt to change and to cope with adversity
Definition of Mental Disorder
1) is a condition that is primarily psychological and that alters behavior, including changes in physiological functioning if such changes can be explained by psychological concepts such as personality, motivation or conflict.
2) in its full-blown state is regularly and intrinsically associated with subjective stress, generalized impairment in social functioning, or behavior one would like to voluntarily stop.
3) a condition distinct from others and responds to treatment.
Mental Health and Mental Illness on a continuum
Flaws with Mental health causes a mental problem which then results in a mental disorder. Without one of these there would be no mental illness as a product, instead it would only be considered an abnormality but nothing serious.
Causes of mental illness according to the Medical Model
Biochemical imbalance, brain injury, and/or genetics/heredity
Definition of the Medical Model
views mental disorder as a disease or disease-like entity that can be treated through medical means; it attributes, mental abnormalities to physiologic, biochemical,or genetic causes and chooses to treat these abnormalities by medically grounded procedures.
Other ways to diagnose a Mental Illness
Emotional and/or cognitive functional impairment. "A state of brain". Incorrect perception of reality.
involves a understanding of such sociological concepts such as norms, roles, and social status that establish and define appropriate behavior in particular social situations or settings.
Mental Disorders in the United States
Approximately 26% of Americans (approximately 1 in 4) suffer from mental disorders in a given year; about 50% of homeless persons are mentally ill or have to deal with it at some point in their life.
Costs of mental illness
Little money is spent on research and treatment for mental illness because the costs are extremely high due to cost for treatment, lost productivity and income, suicide, drug abuse, and divorce, as well as high emotional costs.
Most abused substance in the world; in the united states 9 million are estimated to be alcoholics and about one third of arrests involve drunkenness. greatest amounts consumed by white males in late adolescence and early childhood.
is described as the experience of loss of contact with reality. involves hallucinations and/or delusions. often the precursor to a developing mental illness or the onset of one. about 3 in every 100 people will experience one of these episodes in his/her lifetime. treatable and many people recover from it
When is psychosis seen
in response to severe stress, with extreme sleep deprivation, with the use of hallucinogenic drugs such as PCP or LSD, crystal meth or the use of medical medications like steroids or stimulants. Mary J can also increase the risks of development of this.
The most frequently diagnosed mental illnesses
Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, Post-traumatic stress disorder, Attention-Deficit Disorder/hyperactivity, Borderline Personality Disorder.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. We now currently use the DSM-IV or its newest version the DSM-V
The most commonly diagnosed mental disorder requiring hospitalization. Affects 2.4 million adults over the age 18; affects men more then women with equal frequency. most often occurs in men in their late teens or early twenties, it affects women about 5 years later. delusions and hallucinations are both symptoms;
Treatment of schizophrenia
No simple course of treatment exists; genetics and environmental stressors are thought to contribute to this illness. recovery for every individual is different
a chronic illness with reoccurring episodes of mania and depression that can last from one day to several months; causes unusual and dramatic shifts in mood, energy, and the ability to think clearly. Cycles of high (manic) and low (depressive) moods may follow an irregular pattern that differs from the typical ups and downs experienced by most people.
Mania or Manic state
identified by feelings of extreme irritability and/or euphoria, along with several other symptoms during the same week such as agitation, surges of energy, reduced need for sleep, talkativeness, pleasure seeking and increased risk-taking behavior
Frequency of bipolar disorder
more than 10 million americans have this disorder; more than one-half of all cases begin between ages 15-25. Affects men and women equally.
a mood state that goes well beyond temporarily feeling sad or blue. Affects one's thoughts, feelings, behavior, mood and physical health for more than 2 weeks. Often a life-long condition in which periods of wellness alternate with recurrences of illness.
Frequency of Depression
Affects 5-8 percent of adults in the United States each year. About 25 million Americans will have an episode of major depression this year alone. If left untreated it can lead to serious impairment in daily functioning and even suicide
Other names for major Depression
Clinical Depression, Major Depressive Illness, and Unipolar Mood Disorder
The 10th leading cause of death in the United States
often described as the disease of doubt
intrusive, irrational thoughts- unwanted ideas or impulses that repeatedly well up in a person's mind.
repetitive rituals such as hand-washing, counting, checking, hoarding or arranging.
roughly 10% of women and 5% of men are diagnosed with this in their lifetimes, and many others will experience some adverse effects from trauma at some point in their lives.
About 1 in 30 adults in the United States experience this in a given year. Risks are much higher in veterans of war.
Symptoms of PTSD
recurrent nightmares or flashbacks, physical reactions to triggers that symbolize or resemble the event, avoidance of activities, places or people that remind the person of the trauma, feelings of detachment or estrangement from others, difficulty falling asleep of staying asleep and exaggerated startle response, among others.
A condition characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Not a disorder limiting to children- often persists into adolescence and adulthood and is frequently not diagnosed until later years.
affects an estimated 9 percent of children aged 3-17 and 2-4 percent of adults.
Fail to pay close attention to detail, make careless mistakes in work, school, and other activities; difficulty sustaining attention to tasks or leisure activities; don't seem to listen when spoken directly to; don't follow instructions well and fail to finish work; difficulty organizing tasks; avoid tasks that require sustained mental effort; Lose things; easily distracted
Fidget with hands or feet or squirm in seat; leave seats when in situations that require one to stay seated; move excessively or feel restless during situations in which such behavior is inappropriate; have difficulty engaging in quiet leisure activities; are on the go or act as if driven by a motor; talk excessively; blurt out answers before questions have been completed; have difficulty awaiting their turn; interrupt or intrude on others.
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships, self image and behavior; a disorder of emotional dysregulation, self harming acts and stormy interpersonal relationships; often disrupts family and work, long-term planning, and the individuals sense of identity; was officially recognized in 1980.
is common, estimates range from 2-5%, and important to understand.
is the most common form of severe mental disorder in American Society; These disorders include depression, mania and manic-depressive disorders; There are 2 categories for these disorders: Depressive and bipolar
Frequency of Mood Disorders
The largest category of incapacitating mental dysfunctions in the nation; In 2001, the ECA and NCS estimated that 7.1% of the United States population ages 18-54 will have a mood disorder during the course of the year; In 2002, 5.7% of the population was estimated to have mood disorders annually.
a period of at least 2 weeks during which a persons experiences either a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities; The individual must experience at least 4 additional symptoms: changes in appetite or weight, sleep, or psychomotor activity, decreased energy, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, or recurrent thoughts of death or suicide ideas, plans, or attempts
a combination of manic and depressive episodes, with depression being the more prominent; Equally common in men and women and usually occurs before age 30.
Manic bipolar episode
the predominant mood is one of excessive elation, excessive anger, or both. The person is likely to have extremely grandiose ideas about his or her abilities, speech is likely to be rapid and loud, and irritability is apparent when the person is thwarted in some manner; hyperactivity is another feature common in this episode.
Bipolar Depressive Episode
this is the more common episode of bipolar disorders, here the mood is depression or a pervasive loss of interest or enjoyment.
These disorders are more common in men then in women and are widespread; They are deeply ingrained, inflexible, maladaptive patterns of behavior that pertain to perceiving and thinking about the social environment and one's own self in relation to the environment in such a way that behavior is impaired, and the person, and in some cases, feels subjective distress.
Types of personality Disorders
Paranoid, Schizoid, and schizotypal; Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, and Narcissistic; and Avoidant, Dependent, OCD.
Paranoid personality Disorder
the pervasive, longstanding suspicion and distrust of other people; highly sensitive and easily slighted; they often look for evidence that confirms their paranoid ideas and prejudices. They have a hard time relaxing and to enjoy other people.
Schizoid Personality Disorder
someone who is excessively introverted and lacks the capacity to form social relationships; appear equally in different to praise or criticism; they are withdrawn and seclusive and pursue solitary interests.
Schizotypal Personality Disorders
oddities in thinking, perception, communication, and behavior; not severe enough to be schizophrenic.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
found among individuals with consistent antisocial behavior in which the rights of others are ignored; Early childhood signs: lying, fighting, truancy, and resisting authority;
Borderline Personality Disorder
represents a situation in which a person is unstable in several areas, namely, interpersonal relationships, behavior, mood, and self-concept; the person is impulsive and unpredictable, possibly to the point of self damage, such as risking physical injury, excessive drinking or drug use, overspending, bouts of sexual promiscuity, shoplifting, overeating, gambling, ext.
Histrionic Personality Disorder
the exaggerated expression of emotion intended to gain attention or admiration; the person may appear to be playing a role (being overly dramatic) without being aware of it. These people seem to be shallow, superficial, and insincere.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
These people show a need for constant attention and seem extremely self-centered. They are preoccupied with fantasies of great success and public acclaim, yet they have few friends and their self-esteem is easily threatened by criticism, defeat, and disappointment.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Extremely sensitive to being rejected by others; reluctant to enter relationships unless there is some assurance beforehand of uncritical acceptance. More common among women
Dependent Personality Disorder
More common among women; exceptional dependence on others to the point of even abdicating responsibility for major areas of one's life. These persons lack self confidence.
Forms of treatment for the Medical Model
Psychopharmacology (drug therapy), Electroshock Therapy, and Psychosurgery.
The use of psychoactive drugs to help control mental illnesses.
consists of placing electrodes around the brain and administering electric current (ranging electrodes from 70 to 170 volts) for .75 to 1.25 seconds.
surgical mutalation of the frontal lobe (prefrontal lobotomy) of the brain where higher intellectual functioning takes place.
Key Limitations of the Medical Model
Not all mental illness can be classified as "diseases" of the brain; Too much focus on controlling symptoms rather than addressing the causes of mental illness.
Mental illness is seen as an abnormality in "the mind or psyche."; deals with structure of the personality: Id,Ego, Superego
Psychoanalytic Model Treatment Methods
Psychoanalysis, Psychoanalytic theory, Group Therapy
a patient to therapist relationship that uses free association as the primary technique. The patient is encouraged to say whatever comes to mind. This can take years to complete, it is not a quick fix solution. Most used with patients who suffer from chronic anxiety with some ego strength.
a modified form of psychoanalytic therapy; focus on current conflicts instead of attempting to try and work through the entire history of a person's psychosexual development.
treats several patients at one time; Popular in the united states and consist of having collective participants meet with a trained therapist so that the participants may help one another confront problems and achieve personality change.
Limitations of the Psychoanalytic Model
It is based largely upon speculation; No evidence of the human personality having an actual structure such as the Id, Ego, and Superego; It portrays human beings as being propelled by instincts, without taking into account the person's own free will; No conclusive evidence links personality problems of adults with specific experiences of pleasure or frustration during a particular developmental stage of childhood.
Pros of the Psychoanalytic Model
no other theoretical approach has provided so many insights into the development and functioning of the human personality; Psychoanalytic theory offers a model that is inseparable from physiological concepts and is therefore an ideal psychology for the physician.
Social Learning Model
behavior is learned but can also be unlearned and replaced with behavior that is more socially appropriate. The therapeutic techniques used in this model is called behavior modification, desensitization, positive reinforcement, aversive conditioning, extinction, conditioned avoidance, and contingency contracting.
learning to approach feared situations or objects without anxiety
eliminating a stimulus
Electric shocks or drugs paired with situational stimulus
agreeing with others to engage in certain behavior in return for a similar response
Limitations of the Social Learning Model
there are questions as to whether human beings can actually be conditioned to the extent that they respond more or less automatically to the play of stimuli upon their cerebral functions; The question of how long the effects are present for and their strengths; behavior modification requires that patients be willing and able to learn, have a certain amount of willpower, and recognize and cope with reality at least somewhat consistently- which many mental patients may not be able to do.
Mental illness is seen as "as sane response to an insane world"; Can be seen as a coping mechanism that people should use for symptoms; In this complex society it is hard for these people to follow societal roles; Mental illness as emotional suffering and a problem of living based on social role expectations
Antipsychiatric model according to Szasz
Mental illness is "the myth" seen as something used to control people that is made up; Mental illness is not something a person has but is something he/she does or is; Mental illness as emotional suffering and a problem of living based on social role expectations.
Social Stress Model
If you are under a lot of stress your mental health will be compromised and triggers mental illness. Stress is a good thing sometimes because it toughens you up; Some people can handle their stress and cope while others fall apart.
Components of the social stress model
1) Stressors : any condition having the potential to arouse the adaptive capacity of the individual, 2) Moderators: coping abilities, sense of mastery, and sources of social support, 3) Outcomes: The extent of distress experienced by a person
1) Extreme situations of life events: the ones that not many people are exposed to for example: death of a family member or spouse. 2) Chronic strains: long term persistent stressors rooted in social roles
Key Moderating factors in the stress model
Social support, coping mechanisms, psychological resources; factors that moderate (or buffer) stress responses. Social support: emotional, cognitive, and instrumental. Cooping Mechanisms: cognitive and behavioral; Psychological resources: Self-esteem, sense of control, and hardiness
Physical and mental health problems
an act that violates social norms; norms are socially constructed and specify what is right and proper behavior; Conformity to norms is rewarded where as deviation of norms can lead to disapproval; Most norms allow some variation within "acceptable margins"
Sociologists view of deviance
focus primarily on those forms of deviance that require formal mechanisms of social control, such as police and mental institutions, and are an important threat to the well-being of society if allowed to continued unchecked.
Sociological perspectives of deviance
Micro-level theories and macro-level theories
Conflict Theory and Structural functionalism
Symbolic interactionism, Labeling Theory, Social Constructionism, Social Learning Theory
focuses on the role of social inequality, conflict, and economic exploitation, Explains how social alienation can lead to mental illness; Example: feelings of despair associated with the exploitation of ones labor and disadvantaged position in life; Views mental illness as a problem of living as defined by the power structure;
views mental illness as rooted in the relationship between individuals and social system; Social systems consist of closely interconnected parts and malfunction in one area of social life will cause disturbance in other areas.
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