Ch. 13 Renaissance
Terms in this set (54)
A new era of thought and feeling, by which Europe and its institutions were changed from their forms in the Middle Ages. 15th Century Italy is where the era rose from, and eventhough it pertained to high culture, the changes in literature, the arts, education, and morals spread across a whole area, influenced by the Italians.
Republic of Florence
A moderatly large Italian city that was central to the Italian Renaissance because of its gifted individuals; Dante, Pretrach, Boccaccio, Machiavelli, Brunelleschi, Donatello, Masaccio, Boticelli and others. The city was ruled by the Medici familly, a family of great wealth. Still, the city continued to produce new ways of thinking and helped progress the Renaissance further.
A family, made wealthy by starting a banking industry in Florence, who were major patrons to the arts during the renaissance.
Cosimo de' Medici
(1389-1464) Controled Florence; was a member of a wealthy family who ran the city-state government. Wealthiest Florentine and natural statesman. He internally controlled Florence (behind the scenes). Kept concilors loyal to him in the Signoria.
Lorenzo de' Medici (the Magnificent)
Grandson of Cosimo, he used his great wealth to govern Florence, but he is also remembered as a poet, connoisseur, and lavish benefactor of art and learning.
A Dominican friar in Florence who preached against sin and corruption and gained a large following; he expelled the Medici from Florence but was later excommunicated and executed for criticizing the Pope; wanted to overthrow the Medici Dynasty
Machiavelli, The Prince
A patriot of Italy, he wrote the most lasting work of the Italian Renaissance, a quintessential political treatise. In it, he wrote of how he dreamed that when citizens of his native Florence, or all of Italy, should behave like early Romans--show virility in their politics, fight in citizen armies for patriotic causes, and uphold their dignity before Europe. He admired the leaders of France, Spain and England because they knew how to exercise poer and how to build strong states. (ends justify means, for rulers it is better to be feared than loved).
A political leader, son of Pope Alexander VI, a member of the Spanish Borgia family, he had ambitions of uniting all of Italy under his control. His father tried to exploit his office for the benefit of his relatives.
Sack of Rome, 1527
May 5, 1527 - A military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal States. It marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between Charles I of Spain Holy Roman Emperor, and the League of Cognac (1526-1529) — the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy.
-gained a great amount of land very quickly at a young age from a series of death
A Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
(1313-1375) Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
1. First to use the term "humanism
created by Jerome, first Bible able to be read by the common people as it was written in the vernacular
Pico Della Mirandola, Oration on the Dignity of Man
Oration on the Dignity of Man
Baldassare Castiglione, Book of the Courtier
An Italian author who wrote the book The Courtier in 1528. He described the ideal Renaissance man and woman.
Johann Gutenberg, printing press,
one of the most important inventions in human history; Movable type made possible the spread of humanistic literature
Individual characters made of wood or metal that can be arranged to create a job for printing and then used over again
Massive patronage for the arts came from wealthy merchant-families who commissioned countless works from the great artists.
the 1500s; the High Renaissance in Rome; art was becoming more secular
Pope Alexander VI
A corrupt Spanish Renaissance pope whose immorality sparked debate about the integrity of the Catholic Church.
(n.) a point of view or general standpoint from which different things are viewed, physically or mentally; the appearance to the eye of various objects at a given time, place, or distance
A monochrome picture made by using several different shades of the same color
medieval faces in art--more stylized and generic
A smokelike haziness that subtly softens outlines in painting; particularly applied to the painting of Leonardo and Correggio.
(1276-1337) Florentine Painter who led the way in the use of realism.
Brunelleschi, Il Duomo
it was the largest dome in Europe at the time of its construction; Considered the "father" of perspective
Lorenzo Ghiberti, "gates of paradise"
Bronze doors of baptistry of Santa Maria Della fiore. Scenes of old testiment, very heavy.
a sculptor; first statue that was nude
Sandro Botticelli, Birth of Venus
The subject of his painting ins Venus, the Roman goddess of love, which makes this a great work of humanism since it shows paganism. He uses the contrapposto shape that Greek and Roman sculptors used ( more weight on one leg than other).
period of the Renaissance that was centered in Rome in which the patronage shifted from wealthy families to the Church
Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa
The ideal Renaissance Man; painter, sculptor, architect, engineer, scientist. Created one of the greatest masterpeices of art hisory, used technique of sfumato (haze that softens the edges of objects in painting)
Raphael, School of Athens
This man created this painting which showed numerous people discussing many ideas and two central characters pointing up and forward respectively to indicat the ideas of focusing on God and focusing on moving forward in life
Michelangelo, David; ceiling of Sistine Chapel; dome on St. Peter's basilica, Pieta
painter, sculptor, architect; david - marble, glorifies the human body, contrapposto stance; St. Peter's - designed the dome, still the largest dome in Europe today; Pieta - Mary holding the limp body of Christ, considered the most perfect sculpture ever made
"Almost sixty years separate Titian's Portrait of a Man (the so-called Ariosto) in the National Gallery, London, and his Jacopo Strada, now in Vienna, dated 1568. This broad span of time frames Titian's career as a portrait painter. About one hundred portraits are extant, making it possible to follow both the stylistic and human progress of the artist (the development of his art, but also the events, meetings and successes of his life) as well as the course of Italian and European history in the sixteenth century, exemplified through the images of the protagonists of political, religious and cultural power
Which art movemnet was a deliberate revolt by artists against the goals of the renaissance?
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)
An extension of the Italian Renaissance to the nations Germany, Flanders, France, and England; it took on a more religious nature than the Italian Renaissance
A movement that developed in northern Europe during the Renaissance combining classical learning (humanism) with the goal of reforming the Catholic Church.
Erasmus, In Praise of Folly
This man was the most famous northern humanist who wrote this work criticizing the immorality and hypocrisy of the church. Best seller- only bible sold more copies by 1550.
Thomas More, Utopia
Civic humanist who rose to a high government position in England. His masterpeice is a description of a utopian society where there is a balance of humanism, religion and property, which he believes causes problems in society (some have it, most don't). He believed that for harmony in society, individuals must be willing to sacrifice rights for the common good.
Francois Rabelais, Gargantua and Pantagruel
His writings were written in French vernacular and helped unify the language. His well known writings portrayed his confidence in human nature, as he satirized French society and attacked clerical education, and argued for secular learning.
Michel de Montaigne, skepticism, essay form
Essays. Of the Power of the Imagination/ Essays. Of Cannibals
(1564 - 1616) English poet and playwright considered one of the greatest writers of the English language; works include Julius Caesar, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Hamlet.
Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote
masterpiece of Spanish literature that was critical of religious idealism and chivalric romance
a Northern Renaissance Art, More detail throughout painting, use of oil paints, more emotional that the Italian style, and works often preoccupied with death
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
Peter Brueghel, the Elder
-renaissance painter known for large landscapes and lives of peasant
-painter/master of other forms, such as woodcut in the 1500's (the Later Northern Renaissanc
Hans Holbein the Younger
German Painter noted for his portraits and religious paintings.
Christine de Pisan
"The City of Ladies;" Began a new debate over the proper role of women in society. Europe's first feminist, and well educated in France
She used her wealth, intelligence, and power to support artists and scholars in Florence, Italy. Her palace was one of the most brilliant of the Renaissance.
Known for self-portraits and paintings of Old Testament women; one of the few female artists featured in this guide