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What does blood leave the heart through?


When arteries branch out repeatedly, what do they become?

oxygen and nutrients

What diffuse across capillary walls and enter tissues?


When oxygen and nutrients diffuse across capillary walls, what do they enter?

carbon dioxide and wastes

What moves from tissues into the blood?

oxygen deficient blood

What leaves the capillaries and flows in veins to the heart?


What is the body's only fluid tissue?

liquid plasma and formed elements

What is blood composed of?

Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets

What are the three formed elements?

Red Blood Cells

What is another name for Erythrocytes?

White Blood Cells

What is another name for Leukocytes?


What are cell fragments?


What is the percentage of RBC's out of the total blood volume?


Besides leukocytes and platelets, what does the buffy coat contain a lot of?

7.35 to 7.45

What is the pH of blood?

38 degrees C

What is the average temperature of blood in degrees C?

100 degrees F

What is the average temperature o blood in degrees F?


What is the approximate percentage of body weight that the blood in the body accounts for?


What is the average amount of blood in liters for a male?


What is the average amount of blood in liters for a female?

Substance distribution, regulation of blood levels of particular substances, and body protection

What are the three functions of blood?


What does blood transport from the digestive tract?

Metabolic wastes

What does blood transport from cells to the lungs and Kidneys for elimination?


What does blood transport from endocrine glands to target organs?

body temperature, pH levels, and adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system

What three things does blood maintain?

synthesizing and utilizing antibodies, activating complement proteins, and activating white blood cells

What are the three ways that blood prevents infection?

Albumin, Globulins, clotting proteins, and others

What are the four main proteins found in blood?

Lactic acid, urea, and creatinine

What are the three byproducts of protein metabolism?

glucose, carbohydrates, and amino acids

What are the three organic nutrients found in blood?

sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and bicarbonate

What are the five electrolytes found in blood?


What is the only kind of formed element that are complete cells?

nuclei and organelles

What do RBC's not have?

a few days

How long do most formed elements survive in the bloodstream for?

cells in bone marrow

Most blood cells do not divide but are renewed by what?


What are biconcave discs, anucleate, and have essentially no organelles?


What are erythrocytes filled with?

gas transport

What does the protein hemoglobin function in?


In erythrocytes, what is the membrane protein that is found in the plasma?

gives the erythrocytes their flexibility, and allows them to change shape

What does the protein spectrin allow erythrocytes to do?

97 percent

What percentage of an erythrocyte is hemoglobin?


How is ATP generated?


Yes/No, do erythrocytes comsume the oxygen they transport?

globin and heme

What is hemoglobin composed of?


How many molecules of oxygen can each hemoglobin molecule transport at one time?


What is hemoglobin bound to oxygen?


What is hemoglobin after oxygen diffuses into tissues (reduced Hemoglobin)?


What is hemoglobin bound to carbon dioxide?


Where does carbon dioxide loading take place in?

it prevents fragmenting, and stops an increase in viscosity and osmotic pressure

Why is hemoglobin in red blood cells?


What is blood cell formation?

in the red bone marrow of the axial skeleton and girdles, and the epiphyses of the humerus and femur

Where does hematopoiesis occur?


What give rise to all formed elements?

1 ounce

How many ounces of RBC's does bone marrow turn out per day?

100 billion cells

How many cells are in 1 ounce of RBC's?


What is another way of saying there's not enough oxygen in tissues?

undesirable blood viscosity

What does too many RBC's cause?


What is hormonally controlled and depends on adeuate supplies of iron, amino acids, and B vitamins?


What is released by the kidneys and is triggered by hypoxia due to decreased RBC's, decreased oxygen availability, and increased tissue demand for oxygen?

RBC count in circulating blood, and oxygen carrying ability of the blood

What does enhanced erythropoiesis increase?

proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid

What is required for Erythropoiesis?

folic acid

What is necessary for DNA synthesis?

the liver, spleen, and bone marrow

Where does the body store iron for hemoglobin?


Circulating iron is loosely bound to what transport protein?

100-120 days

WHat is the average life span of an erythrocyte?

Heme and globin are separated and the iron is salvaged for reuse

What happens when Erythrocytes begin to degenerate?


What does heme turn into after it is degraded to a yellow pigment?


What does bilirubin bined to in circulation?


What does the liver secrete bilirubin into the intestine as?


What do the intestines metabolize the bile into?


What does the pigment urobbilinogen degrade into and leaves the body in this form?

in the spleen

Where are RBC's mostly destroyed?

spleen, liver, and bone marrow

Where can RBC's be destroyed?


When hemoglobin is released into the blood what is it captured by before being phagocytized?


What is latin for "lacking blood"?


What is it when blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity?

Hemorrhagic anemia

What is a result of acute or chronic loss of blood?

hemolytic anemia

What is caused from prematurely ruptured RBC's and is usually caused by a mismatch transfusion, or bacteria/parasite?

Aplastic anemia

What is the destruction or inhibition of red bone marrow?


What kind of anemia doesn't have a known cause for why it happens?

intramuscular injection of B12, and application of Nascobal

What are two forms of treatment for Anemia?


What is an excess of RBC's that increase blood viscosity, and is caused from increased altitude exposure or bone cancer?


What percentage of the total blood volume is made up of leukocytes?


How are leukocytes capable of leaving capillaries?


What are borken down into neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils?


What are larger and usually shorter-lived than RBC's?


What kind of neuclei do granulocytes have?


What are all granulocytes cells considered?


What are our body's bacteria slayers?


What account for 1-4% of WBC's, have red-staining, bilobed nuclei connected via a broad band of nuclear materail, have red to crimson (acidophilic) large, coarse, lysosome-like granules, and lessen the severity of allergies by phagocytizing immune complexes?


What leads the body's counterattack against parasitic worms?


What account for 0.5% of WBC's and have U or S shaped nuclei with two or three conspicuous constrictions, are functionally similar to mast cells, have large, purplish-black(basophilic) granules that contain histamine


What are inflammatory chemicals that act as a vasodilator and attracts otehr WBC's?


What are lymphocytes and monocytes considered?


What lacks visible cytoplasmic grnaules, are similar structurally, but are functionally distinct and unrelated cell types, and have spherical (lymphocytes) or kdiney-shaped (monocytes) nuclei?


What account for 25% or more of WBC's and have large, dark-purple, circular nuclei with a thin rim of blue cytoplasm, and are found mostly enmeshed in lymphoid tissue ( some circulate in the blood)?

T-cells and B-cells

WHat are two kinds of lymphocytes?


What kind of lymphocyte functions in the immune response?


What kind of response does the T-cell respond to?


What kind of lymphocyte gives rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies?


What kind of response does the B-cell respond to?


What account for 4-8% of leukocytes?


What are the largest leukocytes?


What have abundant pale-blue cytoplasms, have purple staining, u-or kidney-shaped nuclei, and they leave the circulation, enter tissue, and differentiate into macrophages?

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