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Substance distribution, regulation of blood levels of particular substances, and body protection
What are the three functions of blood?
body temperature, pH levels, and adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system
What three things does blood maintain?
synthesizing and utilizing antibodies, activating complement proteins, and activating white blood cells
What are the three ways that blood prevents infection?
sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and bicarbonate
What are the five electrolytes found in blood?
gives the erythrocytes their flexibility, and allows them to change shape
What does the protein spectrin allow erythrocytes to do?
it prevents fragmenting, and stops an increase in viscosity and osmotic pressure
Why is hemoglobin in red blood cells?
in the red bone marrow of the axial skeleton and girdles, and the epiphyses of the humerus and femur
Where does hematopoiesis occur?
What is hormonally controlled and depends on adeuate supplies of iron, amino acids, and B vitamins?
What is released by the kidneys and is triggered by hypoxia due to decreased RBC's, decreased oxygen availability, and increased tissue demand for oxygen?
RBC count in circulating blood, and oxygen carrying ability of the blood
What does enhanced erythropoiesis increase?
proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid
What is required for Erythropoiesis?
Heme and globin are separated and the iron is salvaged for reuse
What happens when Erythrocytes begin to degenerate?
When hemoglobin is released into the blood what is it captured by before being phagocytized?
What is caused from prematurely ruptured RBC's and is usually caused by a mismatch transfusion, or bacteria/parasite?
intramuscular injection of B12, and application of Nascobal
What are two forms of treatment for Anemia?
What is an excess of RBC's that increase blood viscosity, and is caused from increased altitude exposure or bone cancer?
What account for 1-4% of WBC's, have red-staining, bilobed nuclei connected via a broad band of nuclear materail, have red to crimson (acidophilic) large, coarse, lysosome-like granules, and lessen the severity of allergies by phagocytizing immune complexes?
What account for 0.5% of WBC's and have U or S shaped nuclei with two or three conspicuous constrictions, are functionally similar to mast cells, have large, purplish-black(basophilic) granules that contain histamine
What lacks visible cytoplasmic grnaules, are similar structurally, but are functionally distinct and unrelated cell types, and have spherical (lymphocytes) or kdiney-shaped (monocytes) nuclei?
What account for 25% or more of WBC's and have large, dark-purple, circular nuclei with a thin rim of blue cytoplasm, and are found mostly enmeshed in lymphoid tissue ( some circulate in the blood)?
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