How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

103 terms

Chapter 17 Blood

STUDY
PLAY
arteries
What does blood leave the heart through?
capillaries
When arteries branch out repeatedly, what do they become?
oxygen and nutrients
What diffuse across capillary walls and enter tissues?
tissues
When oxygen and nutrients diffuse across capillary walls, what do they enter?
carbon dioxide and wastes
What moves from tissues into the blood?
oxygen deficient blood
What leaves the capillaries and flows in veins to the heart?
Blood
What is the body's only fluid tissue?
liquid plasma and formed elements
What is blood composed of?
Erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
What are the three formed elements?
Red Blood Cells
What is another name for Erythrocytes?
White Blood Cells
What is another name for Leukocytes?
Platelets
What are cell fragments?
Hematocrit
What is the percentage of RBC's out of the total blood volume?
proteins
Besides leukocytes and platelets, what does the buffy coat contain a lot of?
7.35 to 7.45
What is the pH of blood?
38 degrees C
What is the average temperature of blood in degrees C?
100 degrees F
What is the average temperature o blood in degrees F?
8
What is the approximate percentage of body weight that the blood in the body accounts for?
5-6
What is the average amount of blood in liters for a male?
4-5
What is the average amount of blood in liters for a female?
Substance distribution, regulation of blood levels of particular substances, and body protection
What are the three functions of blood?
nutrients
What does blood transport from the digestive tract?
Metabolic wastes
What does blood transport from cells to the lungs and Kidneys for elimination?
Hormones
What does blood transport from endocrine glands to target organs?
body temperature, pH levels, and adequate fluid volume in the circulatory system
What three things does blood maintain?
synthesizing and utilizing antibodies, activating complement proteins, and activating white blood cells
What are the three ways that blood prevents infection?
Albumin, Globulins, clotting proteins, and others
What are the four main proteins found in blood?
Lactic acid, urea, and creatinine
What are the three byproducts of protein metabolism?
glucose, carbohydrates, and amino acids
What are the three organic nutrients found in blood?
sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, and bicarbonate
What are the five electrolytes found in blood?
Leukocytes
What is the only kind of formed element that are complete cells?
nuclei and organelles
What do RBC's not have?
a few days
How long do most formed elements survive in the bloodstream for?
cells in bone marrow
Most blood cells do not divide but are renewed by what?
Erythrocytes
What are biconcave discs, anucleate, and have essentially no organelles?
hemoglobin
What are erythrocytes filled with?
gas transport
What does the protein hemoglobin function in?
spectrin
In erythrocytes, what is the membrane protein that is found in the plasma?
gives the erythrocytes their flexibility, and allows them to change shape
What does the protein spectrin allow erythrocytes to do?
97 percent
What percentage of an erythrocyte is hemoglobin?
anaerobically
How is ATP generated?
no
Yes/No, do erythrocytes comsume the oxygen they transport?
globin and heme
What is hemoglobin composed of?
four
How many molecules of oxygen can each hemoglobin molecule transport at one time?
Oxyhemoglobin
What is hemoglobin bound to oxygen?
Deoxyhemoglobin
What is hemoglobin after oxygen diffuses into tissues (reduced Hemoglobin)?
Carbaminohemoglobin
What is hemoglobin bound to carbon dioxide?
tissues
Where does carbon dioxide loading take place in?
it prevents fragmenting, and stops an increase in viscosity and osmotic pressure
Why is hemoglobin in red blood cells?
hematopoiesis
What is blood cell formation?
in the red bone marrow of the axial skeleton and girdles, and the epiphyses of the humerus and femur
Where does hematopoiesis occur?
Hemocytoblasts
What give rise to all formed elements?
1 ounce
How many ounces of RBC's does bone marrow turn out per day?
100 billion cells
How many cells are in 1 ounce of RBC's?
hypoxia
What is another way of saying there's not enough oxygen in tissues?
undesirable blood viscosity
What does too many RBC's cause?
Erythropoiesis
What is hormonally controlled and depends on adeuate supplies of iron, amino acids, and B vitamins?
Erythropoietin
What is released by the kidneys and is triggered by hypoxia due to decreased RBC's, decreased oxygen availability, and increased tissue demand for oxygen?
RBC count in circulating blood, and oxygen carrying ability of the blood
What does enhanced erythropoiesis increase?
proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates, iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid
What is required for Erythropoiesis?
folic acid
What is necessary for DNA synthesis?
the liver, spleen, and bone marrow
Where does the body store iron for hemoglobin?
transferrin
Circulating iron is loosely bound to what transport protein?
100-120 days
WHat is the average life span of an erythrocyte?
Heme and globin are separated and the iron is salvaged for reuse
What happens when Erythrocytes begin to degenerate?
bilirubin
What does heme turn into after it is degraded to a yellow pigment?
albumin
What does bilirubin bined to in circulation?
bile
What does the liver secrete bilirubin into the intestine as?
urobilinogen
What do the intestines metabolize the bile into?
stercobilin
What does the pigment urobbilinogen degrade into and leaves the body in this form?
in the spleen
Where are RBC's mostly destroyed?
spleen, liver, and bone marrow
Where can RBC's be destroyed?
haptoglobin
When hemoglobin is released into the blood what is it captured by before being phagocytized?
anemia
What is latin for "lacking blood"?
anemia
What is it when blood has abnormally low oxygen-carrying capacity?
Hemorrhagic anemia
What is a result of acute or chronic loss of blood?
hemolytic anemia
What is caused from prematurely ruptured RBC's and is usually caused by a mismatch transfusion, or bacteria/parasite?
Aplastic anemia
What is the destruction or inhibition of red bone marrow?
Aplastic
What kind of anemia doesn't have a known cause for why it happens?
intramuscular injection of B12, and application of Nascobal
What are two forms of treatment for Anemia?
Polycythemia
What is an excess of RBC's that increase blood viscosity, and is caused from increased altitude exposure or bone cancer?
1%
What percentage of the total blood volume is made up of leukocytes?
diapedesis
How are leukocytes capable of leaving capillaries?
granulocytes
What are borken down into neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils?
Granulocytes
What are larger and usually shorter-lived than RBC's?
lobed
What kind of neuclei do granulocytes have?
Phagocytic
What are all granulocytes cells considered?
Neutrophils
What are our body's bacteria slayers?
Eosinophils
What account for 1-4% of WBC's, have red-staining, bilobed nuclei connected via a broad band of nuclear materail, have red to crimson (acidophilic) large, coarse, lysosome-like granules, and lessen the severity of allergies by phagocytizing immune complexes?
Eosinophils
What leads the body's counterattack against parasitic worms?
Basophils
What account for 0.5% of WBC's and have U or S shaped nuclei with two or three conspicuous constrictions, are functionally similar to mast cells, have large, purplish-black(basophilic) granules that contain histamine
Histamine
What are inflammatory chemicals that act as a vasodilator and attracts otehr WBC's?
agranulocytes
What are lymphocytes and monocytes considered?
Agranulocytes
What lacks visible cytoplasmic grnaules, are similar structurally, but are functionally distinct and unrelated cell types, and have spherical (lymphocytes) or kdiney-shaped (monocytes) nuclei?
Lymphocytes
What account for 25% or more of WBC's and have large, dark-purple, circular nuclei with a thin rim of blue cytoplasm, and are found mostly enmeshed in lymphoid tissue ( some circulate in the blood)?
T-cells and B-cells
WHat are two kinds of lymphocytes?
T-cells
What kind of lymphocyte functions in the immune response?
initial
What kind of response does the T-cell respond to?
B-cells
What kind of lymphocyte gives rise to plasma cells, which produce antibodies?
memory
What kind of response does the B-cell respond to?
Monocytes
What account for 4-8% of leukocytes?
Monocytes
What are the largest leukocytes?
Monocytes
What have abundant pale-blue cytoplasms, have purple staining, u-or kidney-shaped nuclei, and they leave the circulation, enter tissue, and differentiate into macrophages?