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For Test #2
Terms in this set (59)
1. What is it about silk that makes it so appealing to people as a fabric and textile? (This is a what do you think question based on the lecture and your own ideas)
Its luxurious feel, texture, and its hierarchical connotations
2. Is the silk worm the only insect/arthropod to produce silk? Name another insect/arthropod that makes silk and describe how it is used by that animal.
Spiders: they use silk to build a web that traps prey
3. How has the silkworm changed during the process of domestication? Point out how each of these changes enhance silk yield.
Fast growing larvae: Increase in silk production
Increased Egg Production: More eggs = more young per generation
Females Cannot Fly: Resources placed into better production of silk
Dependent on People: Cannot live in wild
4. Why have attempts to produce a mulberry-free artificial diet been unsuccessful?
Silkworms lack enzyme for make urea useable, and that enzyme is in the mulberry leaves
5. How long has silk been used to produce silk fabric in China? How long were the Chinese able to keep the secret of making silk from western countries (=Europe and middle east)?
It was only used by the upper-class and only for the rulers to own. More than 2000 years they kept the secret.
6. How are the spread of Muslim culture around the Mediterranean Sea and the Crusades related to the history of silk use and production in Europe?
The Muslim culture and the Crusades spread across a wide variety of countries and land. While they waged war or conquered civilizations, they also spread culture: and silk was a part of that. This is how it came to Europe.
7. Name two centers of silk production in Europe? What are two events or circumstances that occurred in the mid-1880s that severely weakened the European silk industries?
Italy (Lucca, Venice, Florence) and France (Lyons).
SILKWORM DISEASES, IMPROVEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
The creation of artificial silk and the long depression were both factors that decreased silk industry. In addition, silkworm diseases began to occur starting in 1845.
1. There are three potential uses for venom. Please name them and provide the name of an animal for which each use is a priority.
Defense (Poison Dart Frog)
Immobilize Prey (Snakes)
Cause Pain (Bees)
2. Scorpions arose in the Silurian period. Provide a reason why they are so widely distributed on a worldwide basis.
One plausible reason would be to study their venom and use it to develop antidotes.
3. Why are there so many more deaths due to scorpion stings in Mexico than in the United States?
United States has 1 deadly scorpion out of 50 species, while Mexico has 8 deadly scorpions out of 135 species.
4. What symptom is most diagnostic of severe scorpion envenomation?
Combined cranial nerve/autonomic dysfunction and somatic nerve dysfunction
1. What was the "silk road"?
A series of connected trade routes across Asia, began as a trading route to other countries from China.
2. What record of their lives and culture did travelers through and residents of Dun Huang build/create?
They brought respective cultures and distinctive objects from the north and south sections of the Silk Road, as Dun Huang was near the road's midpoint.
3. What is the significance of the mummies found near Lop Nor?
The mummy is dated around 3000 years old, near Lop Nor, or the dividing between the north and south of the Silk Road.
. What new evidence suggests that the Bubonic Plague was brought to Europe from China
Evidence points to an occurrence in China 2600 years ago, where more than 600 years ago it progressed along the Silk Road to Africa, from where it progressed to Europe. Evidence of the Yersinia Pestis bacteria helps indicate this.
1. What is a secondary plant compound? Name one of their uses for humans.
Secondary compounds are complex chemicals made by plants that are not essential to the life of the plant. They are thought to be produced primarily as pesticides and anti-grazing agents, but they also used as pigments, hormones and chemical agents that can attack other plants (alleleopathy).
2. Other than for candles, name three human uses for insect wax.
Handyman techniques (loosening, freeing a frozen nut)
Waterproofing (especially leather)
Polishing and Preserving (concrete counters)
3. What is the principal difference between the mechanisms of passive and active insectivorous plants?
Passive = Pitcher Plant, Active = Venus Fly Trap
Passive plants lay in wait, relying on toxins and for bugs to fall into their guise. Active plants take action, luring, and then shutting them so escape is impossible.
4. What is a nostrum? Provide two examples.
Recommended medicine without scientific proof of effectiveness. Two examples are: 1) Panacea, remedy for all ills, 2) Garlic used to prevent disease
5. Where does shellac come from? Name two uses.
It is made from a raw material, Lac, which is excreted by an insect that eats the sap from trees. It's a protective resin for their eggs and throughout their life. Two uses are: Polish/Decorative Coating, Glazing agent on pills
Name 5 red dyes that were used in the old world to produce a red color for paintings or fabric before American cochineal was discovered in Mexico.
Mineral Pigments/Ocher, Hematite (Iron Oxide), Cinnabar, Madder, Scale Insects
In dyeing fabric, what are 3 factors (there are more) that control color besides the dye itself?
Concentration, acidity, Time
What roles did cochineal insects play in Aztec and Inca cultures before the arrival of western conquerors?
Tributes (food, monetary, clothing)
How did the Spanish develop and maintain a monopoly on cochineal production for export for over 200 years?
3 harvests per year (in Mexico), 10-30 times stronger w/more fabric
Why do you think it was so difficult for European scientists to figure out that cochineal was an insect?
Because the dye was so specific and intricate, and seemingly bound so well. It wasn't until they examined the powder with a microscope that they found it was an insect.
What were the reasons that efforts to establish cochineal cultivation outside of Mexico generally failed?
Use of wild cochineal, which was useless (wild variety not good for dye)
What events and factors worked to end Spain's monopoly on cochineal production, eventually?
1803: Napoleon Invades Spain
1815: Napoleon defeated at Waterloo
1818: War of Independence in Mexico
Name 3 countries that are major producers of cochineal today.
Peru, Chile, Mexico
2. How do antlions obtain their food?
They build nests with slanted edges. Ants slide down, Antlion gobbles up.
3. Provide an example of where ants and plants are mutually beneficial to one another.
Azteca Ants and Cecropia Trees in the South American Rainforest. Trees give ants shelter, and ants defend trees from intruders.
. What is the circumstance surrounding the importation of dung beetles into Australia?
The native dung beetles of Australia couldn't compensate for the mass amounts of cow patties introduced to the country. Therefore, an exotic breed of dung beetles were introduced to clear the patties.
5. Provide an example of how arthropods aid in recycling material in the food web.
Example: Dung Beetle hiding cow patties and fertilizing the soil. It is recycling the material both for nutrients and for enhancing the soil.
1) Name two negative effects of human insect consumption
Possibility of lead consumption (Mexico example)
Accidently ingestion of toxins or bacteria
2) Name two positive effects of human insect consumption
Less fat than meat
High protein count, healthy and great nutritional value
Smarter and more effective/efficient than farming and eating meat
3) Provide an example an arthropod we do eat. Why is this incongruous with the facts?
Lobster. Crab (crab is a bottom feeder, while grasshoppers, considered gross, are clean-eaters)
4) Name two reasons why humans domesticated dogs.
Hunting, protection of livestock, partnership
1. How does pesticide resistance develop?
Pesticide kills off some, but those that survive breed and become resistant
2. Name the three types of biological control and provide an example for two.
Augmentation: Increase of NATIVE agents to CONTROL EXOTIC PESTS. (parasitoid to control greenhouse whitefly)
Classical: Importation of EXOTIC predators into an area inhabited by EXOTIC pests where predators aren't present. (Vedalia Beetle to destroy Cottony Cushion Scale)
Neoclassical: EXOTIC agents against a native pest.
3. It is said that biological control is a technique that is "information rich". Describe what this phrase means using the example of the cane toad in Australia.
Cane toad was an attempt to control the cane beetle in Queensland. However, the toad wasn't properly researched, as its heavy appetite began destroying the Northern Australia countryside. If this information had been known, this could have been prevented.
4. Natural enemies hold natural populations in check, but what does biological control as a technique mean?
As a technique, Biological Control is the deliberate introduction/use of one species of organisms to eliminate another.
5. How do we contribute to the amount of pesticides used on sweet corn?
Petition, buy organic or specifically marked goods
1. What did the guest speaker mean by Special Forces when discussing the deployment of natural enemies in commercial greenhouses? Provide an example.
Beneficial organisms introduced when there is a particular need because of the presence of a usual pest. This need is often found when scouting, e.g., a fly predator used against an aphid species that is not usually a pest.
2. What is one of the important environmental requirements of the two-spotted predator, Phytoseiulus persimilis? How is this information used in IPDM?
The predatory mite requires a higher relative humidity so increasing greenhouse moisture increases their efficiency.
. How do you detect the presence of thrips in a greenhouse.
They scour the leaf surface that causes a distinct scar. More importantly, their frass (insect dung) is found where they feed.
4. Why is the predatory mite, Amblyseius swirskii, less effective in tomatoes?
They have short legs and cannot deal with the long hairs found on tomato plants as easily.
1. What are the three INTRINSIC indicators that coroners use to determine time of death (Post Mortem Interval)?
Pooling of Blood
2. How is forensic entomology typically used in addition to these indicators?
Parasites/Predators of initial feeders
Combo insects (feed on both)
Extension of the environment
3. What group of insects is the best overall indicator of time of death for the first 1-2 weeks
4. Different sets of insects use corpses at different stages of decay. Name an insect that typically uses the corpse at the middle and late stages of decay AND indicate what particular resource related to the corpse that it is using.
Checkered Beetle (larvae feed on dried fat, adults are predators of other insects)
Forensic entomology is a knowledge-intensive field. Know at least 4 factors that a practitioner of field should know to be able to make reliable estimates of time of death?
Identification of local species
Knowledge of local insect biology
Know local climates/microclimates
Know insect development w/temperature
1. What is Mono No Aware?
"A sensitivity of ephemera", describes transience of things and the sadness of passing.
2. The movie shows people in activities involving insects or representations of insects that they are clearly enjoying. What are three of these?
Searching for Bugs
3. What aspects of human character and emotions do Japanese see in dragonflies and fireflies?
Dragonfly = Courage to fly forward and never retreat (strength/happiness)
Fireflies = Love
4. The interviewer has apparently asked Dr. Yoro what insects can teach us. Summarize his answer, which starts at time 47:40. [We did not get this far during class, so you need to stream the movie.]
To change oneself by learning, open your eyes and ears and become the product of the knowledge of your surroundings.
1. What are 3 valuable or enjoyable elements or experiences that insect zoos can provide us?
Entertainment, Environmental Education, Conservation of Endangered Species
2. Name 4 insects that are commonly seen in insect zoos? What qualities of each one makes it good for keeping in a zoo and engaging visitors?
Tarantula (large and visible)
Ants (social insect, many in one viewing space)
Bees (social insect, many in one viewing space)
3. Insects as a group tend to be small individuals. How can zoos get around the problem of small size to create an interesting exhibit that will grab people's attention?
Through the use of social insects. Although small, social insects work together and appear as a greater whole.
4. Insects as a group tend to have short lives. How can zoos get around the problem of short lives so that it won't be too time consuming costly to replace individuals as they die?
Colonies for social insects have long lives if the Queen is healthy. For other insects that have shorter spans of life, a zoo can continuously buy or raise, then replace. In addition, zoos can buy types of insects that live for weeks/months instead of those that live for days.
5. Butterflies live only a few weeks but are very popular in exhibits. How are the butterflies managed so that there will always be fresh butterflies for viewing?
Butterflies are introduced at staggered times and ordered from companies that 'mass rear' insects. Feeding stations are set up where butterflies are displayed, and pupae are arranged so the release of the butterfly is safe.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Entomology Exam 1: Insect Macroevolution
Entomology Exam 1: Insect Development
Entomology Exam 1: Sensory systems and behavior
Entomology Exam 2: Insects and Plants
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