112 terms

Psychology

10 and 11
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substance abuse
a pattern in which people rely on a drug excessively and regularly, bringing damage to their relationships, functioning poorly at work, or putting themselves or others in danger
substance dependence
a pattern in which people organize their lives around a drug, possible building a tolerance to it, experiencing withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking it, or both. Also called addiction.
tolerance
an adjustment by the brain and the body to the regular use of certain drugs so that ever larger doses are needed to achieve earlier effects.
withdrawal
unpleasant, sometimes dangerous reactions that may occur when chronic users of a drug stop taking it or reduce their dosage. (cramps, anxiety attacks, sweating, nausea)
depressants
substances that slow the activity of the central nervous system. Reduce tension and inhibitions and may interfere with a persons judgement, motor activity, and concentration.
alcohol, sedative-hypnotic drugs, and opioids
types of depressants
alcohol
any drink containing ethyl alcohol, including beer, wine, and liquor.
ethyl alcohol
chemical that is quickly absorbed into the blood through the lining of the stomach and intestines and is carried in bloodstream to CNS. Binds to GABA
GABA, increase, slows
neurotransmitter ________ that carries inhibitory message.
________ GABA activity (GABA inhibits / "shuts
down" neurons), _______ CNS activity
alcohol dehydrogenase
women have less _______ _________ which breaks down blood.
20%
______ of alcohol national expenditures on health care
1/3 to 1/2
A factor in ________ of all suicides, homicides,
assaults, rapes, accidental deaths.
41%
of all fatal care accident
MRI
_____ scans of long-term heavy drinkers have revealed damage in various regions of their brains and impairments in their short-term memory, speed of thinking, attention skills, and balance.
delirium tremens (DTs)
a dramatic withdrawal reaction experienced by some people who are alcohol-dependent. it consists of confusion, clouded consciousness, and terrifying visual hallucinations.
Korsakoff's syndrome
a disease that afflicts long-term alcoholics, leaving some abilities intact but including hallucinations and a tendency to repeat the same story.
confabulating
reciting made up events to fill in gaps. seen in Korsakoffs syndrome.
sedative-hypnotic drugs
a drug used in low doses to reduce anxiety and help produce sleep. Include barbituates and benzodiazepines
barbituates
addictive sedative hypnotic drugs that reduce anxiety and help produce sleep. reduce a persons level of excitement by attaching to GABA receptors, increase GABA activity.
benzodiazepines
the most common group of anti-anxiety drugs which includes Valium and Xanax. also increase GABA activity. relieve anxiety by making people less drowsy and less likely to cause death.
Opioids
any drug derived from opium including morphine, heroine, and codeine. Also known as narcotics.
endorphins
Opioids attach to brain receptor sites that ordinarily receive __________. When neurons a these receptor sites receive opioids, they produce pleasurable and calming feelings just like they would when receiving endorphins.
respiratory center
the most immediate danger of heroin use is an overdoes which closes down the ______ ______ in the brain, almost paralyzing breathing and can cause death.
Stimulants
substances that increase the activity of the CNS, resulting in increased blood pressure and heart rate, greater alertness, and sped-up behavior and thinking.
Cocaine
most powerful natural stimulant now known. most often snorted.
dopamine
cocaine apparently produces these effects largely by increasing supplies of the neurotransmitter________ at key neurons throughout the brain.
overstimulate
excessive amounts of dopamine travel to receiving neurons throughout the CNS and _______ them.
norepinephrine, serotonin
in addition, cocain appears to increase the activity of the neurotransmitters ________ and _________ in some areas of the brain.
cocaine intoxication
high doses produce _______ ________ whose symptoms are poor muscle coordination, grandiosity, bad judgement, anger, aggression, compulsive behavior, anxiety, and confusion.
free-basing
many people ingest cocaine by ___________, a technique in which the pure cocaine basic alkaloid is chemically separated, or "freed" from the processed cocaine, vaporized by heat from a flame, and inhaled through pipe.
crack
a powerful form or ready to smoke free base cocaine.
tightens, fibrillation
cocaine ________ blood vessels which constricting the flow forcing the heart to work harder to pump blood through the
body. the heart works harder, it beats faster...temporarily
lose its natural rhythm. _________can be very dangerous
because it stops the flow of blood through the body
limbic
opiates act on ______ system which creates pleasure, contentment and relaxation.
brainstem
opiates act on _______ which slows breathing, stop
coughing, things you do automatically
spinal cord
opiates act on ______ ______ which blocks pain message
amphetamines
drugs that stimulate neural activity (increase dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin), causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes manufactured in lab.
methamphetamines
a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes; over time, appears to reduce baseline dopamine levels. crank, ice, and crystal meth.
hallucinogens
psychedelic drugs, such as LSD, MDMA, and mescaline that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
hallucinogen intoxication
LSD, within two hours, brings on this state marked by general strengthening of visual perceptions, psychological changes, and physical symptoms.
cannabis
when smoked this produces a mixture of hallucinogenic, depressant, and stimulant effects. at low doses smoker feels joy, relaxation and quiet or talkative.
synergistic effect
in pharmacology, an increase of effects that occurs when more than one substance is acting on the body at the same time.
polysubstance-related disorders
a long-term pattern of maladaptive behaviors centered on abuse of or dependence on a combination of drugs.
ecstasy
both stimulant & hallucinogenic properties
sociocultural view
theory that propose that people are most likely to develop patterns of substance abuse or dependence when they live under stressful socioeconomic conditions. higher levels of unemployment have high rates of alcoholism.
Psychodynamic view
theory that believes that people who abuse substances have powerful dependency needs that can be traced to their early years. when parents fail to satisfy a young child's need for nurturance, the child is likely to grow up depending on others.
behaviorists view
operant conditioning plays key role in substance abuse because temporary reduction of tension or raising of spirits produced by a drug has a rewarding effect.
cognitive view
argue that such rewards eventually produce an expectancy that substances will be rewarding and this expectation helps motivate individuals to increase drug use at times of tension.
classical conditioning
___________ plays a role in substance abuse because just the sight of a hypodermic needle, drug buddy, or regular supplier has been known to comfort people who abuse heroin or amphetamines and to relieve their withdrawal symptoms.
54%
if one identical twin abuses alcohol, ______ chance for other to as well.
28%
if one fraternal twin abuses alcohol, _______ chance for other to as well.
dopamine-2 (D2) receptor gene
genetic factor line of investigation found abnormal form of _______________ in a majority of research participants with alcohol, nicotine, or cocaine dependence but in less than 20 % of nondependent participants.
GABA
repeated and excessive use of alcohol or benzodiazepines may lower the brains production of the neurotransmitter ________.
endorphins
regular use of opioids may reduce the brain's production of ____________.
dopamine
regular use of cocaine or amphetamines may lower the brains production of __________.
anandamide
excessive use of THC and marijuana reduces the production of the neurotransmitter __________.
reward center
a dopamine-rich pathway in the brain that produces feelings of pleasure when activated.
psychodynamic therapies for drugs
therapy that guides clients to uncover and work through underlying needs and conflicts that they believe led to the disorder. not effective alone.
behavioral therapies for drugs
therapy that uses aversion therapy based on classical conditioning. Individuals repeatedly presented with an unpleasant stimulus at the very moment that they take a drug. applied to alcohol abuse mainly.
cognitive-behavioral therapies
help people gain control over their substance-related behaviors.
BSCT
a cognitive-behavioral approach to treating alcohol abuse and dependence in which clients are taught to keep track of their drinking behavior and to apply coping strategies in situations that typically trigger excessive drinking.
relapse-prevention training
heavy drinkers are assigned many of the same tasks as clients in BSCT and has clients plan ahead for risky situations and reactions.
biological treatments for drugs
treatment that rarely brings long-term improvement but used to help people withdraw from substances.
detoxification
a treatment for addiction to drugs or alcohol intended to remove the physiological effects of the addictive substances
antagonist drugs
drugs that block or change the effects of an addictive drug, reducing desire for the drug. (disulfiram for alcoholics)
narcotic antagonists
opioid dependent people use _______ _____ such as naloxone and naltrexone to attach to endorphin receptor sites throughout the brain and make it impossible for the opioids to have their usual effect.
methadone maintenance program
an approach to treating heroin dependence in which clients are given legally and medically supervised doses of a substitute drug, methadone
AA
an international organization that provides a support group for persons trying to overcome alcoholism
residential treatment center
a place where people formerly dependent on drugs live, work, and socialize in a drug-free environment. AKA therapeutic community
sexual dysfunctions and paraphilias
two general categories of sexual disorders
sexual dysfunctions
persistent or recurrent difficulties in becoming sexually aroused or reaching orgasm. m=31% f=43%. affect three or more of human sexual response cycle
paraphilias
people have repeated and intense sexual urges or fantasies in response to objects or situations that society deems inappropriate.
GID
a sex-related pattern in which people persistently feel that they have been born to the wrong sex and in fact identify with the other gender.
cycle
human sexual response can be described as a _____ with 4 phases: desire, excitement, orgasm, and resolution
desire phase
the phase of the sexual response cycle consisting of an urge to have sex, sexual fantasies, and sexual attraction to others.
hypoactive sexual desire disorder
disorder marked by a lack of interest in sex and hence a low level of sexual activity. m=16% w=33%
sexual aversion disorder
a disorder characterized by an aversion to and avoidance of genital sexual interplay.
prolactin, tertosterone, estrogen
in both men and women, a high level of the hormone ______, a low level of the male sex hormone _______ and either a high or low level of the female sex hormone _____ can lead to low sex drive.
excitement phase
phase in human sexual response in which people experience sexual pleasure and notice physiological changes associated with it. marked by changes in pelvic region, increases in heart rate, muscle tension, blood pressure, and rate of breathing.
female sexual arousal disorder
disorder of excitement where a woman is unable to persistently attain or maintain proper lubrication or genital swelling during sexual activity. also experience orgasmic disorder. 10%
male erectile disorder
a dysfunction in which a man repeatedly fails to attain or maintain an erection during sexual activity. 50% of men over age 60. 7% under 30.
vascular problems
problems with the bodys blood vessels lead to male erectile disorder.
nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT)
test measures erections during sleep and is particularly useful at helping to diagnose the cause of male erectile disorder
WIlliam Masters and Virginia Johnson
cognitive-behavioral sex researchers who emphasized performance anxiety and the spectator role.. male fears he would have an erection.. leads to problems.
Orgasm phase
phase in human sexual response marked by involuntary rhythmic contractions in the muscles of genitals in both men and women
rapid ejaculation
persistently reaches orgasms and ejaculates with very little sexual stimulation. M=30%
male orgasmic disorder
a man repeatedly is unable to reach an orgasm or is very delayed in reaching an orgasm after normal sexual excitement. m=8%
female orgasmic disorder
woman rarely reach orgasm or generally experience a very delayed one. 24%
vaginismus
a sexual disorder in which there is a spastic contraction of the muscles surrounding the entrance to the vagina, in some cases so severe that intercourse is impossible. 20% occasionally. 1% have
dyspareunia
occurrence of pain during sexual intercourse. m=3% w=14%
sensate focus
a series of touching and communication exercises developed by Masters and Johnson, used to enhance sexual pleasure and to reduce performance pressure
affectual awareness
therapy for hypoactive sexual desire and sexual aversion where patients visualize sexual scenes in order to discover any feelings of anxiety, vulnerability, and other negative emotions they may have concerning sex.
erectile disorder treatment
treatment focuses on reducing a man's performance anxiety, increasing his stimulation. Tease technique, sildenafil which increases blood flow to penis, 75% improve vacuum erection devise
directed masturbation training
a woman is taught step by step how to masturbate effectively and eventually to reach orgasm during sexual interaction. 90% learn to have orgasm,80% during caressing, 30% during intercourse.
treatment for paraphilia
antiandrogens- lower production of testosterone, and SSRI's which enhance serotonin and reduce compulsion like sexual behaviors
fetishism
a paraphilia in which a nonhuman object is the preferred or exclusive method of achieving sexual excitement. classical conditioning
masturbatory satiation
A behavioral treatment in which a client masturbates for a long period of time while fantasizing in detail about a paraphilic object. The procedure is expected to produce a feeling of boredom that in turn becomes linked to the object.
orgasmic reorientation
A behavioral treatment that teaches people with paraphilias to respond to more appropriate sources of sexual stimulation is:
transvestic fetishism
achievement of sexual arousal and satisfaction by dressing as a member of the opposite sex. operant conditioning
exhibitionism
the perverse act of exposing and attracting attention to your own genitals. Provoking shock or surprise excites the pt.
Voyeurism
Recurrent intense urges to secretly observe
unsuspecting people as they undress or have
intercourse. Vulnerability and potential humiliation of victims excites the pt.
Frotteurism
Recurrent urges or fantasies to touch and rub
against non-consenting person.
Pedophilia
Gains sexual gratification by watching,
touching, or engaging in sexual acts with
prepubescent children; child pornography
relapse prevention therapy
treatment for pedophilia where clients identify the kinds of situations that trigger pedophilic fantasies and learn strategies to avoid them.
sexual masochism
Aroused by act or fantasy of being humiliated,
beaten bound or made to suffer.
Must be upset or impaired by these
acts/fantasies.
sexual sadism
Aroused by act/fantasy of inflicting suffering
on others by dominating, restaining,
blindfolding, cutting, strangling, mutilating or
even killing the victim
hypoxyphilia
people strangle or smother themselves in order to enhance their sexual pleasure.
autoerotic asphyxia
in which individuals (males as young as 10) may accidentally induce a fatal lack of oxygen by hanging, suffocating, or strangling themselves while masturbating.
transgender experience
a sense that their actual gender identity is different from the gender category to which they were born physically or that it lies outside the usual male verses female categories.
gender dysphoria
unhappiness with their given gender
BST
cluster of cells in hypothalamus half as large in six men changed to women.
androphilic type
Born male but appear or behave in a stereotypically female manner from birth. they eventually become attracted to males and come out as gay, but this does not satisfy them because they want to be with heterosexual men who are attracted to them as women.
autogynephilic type
Not sexually attracted to males within their pattern of gender dysphoria; rather, they are attracted to the fantasy of themselves being females. Eventually, they will be consumed with the need to be female.