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Psych Chapter 6
Terms in this set (39)
Trust Versus Mistrust
The first psychosocial crisis in Erikson's theory in which infants must develop a basic sense of trust of the world as a safe place where their basic needs will be met.
Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt
In Erikson's theory, the psychosocial crisis of toddlerhood in which individuals must establish the sense that they can make choices and guide their actions and bodies.
Emotions that are universal in humans, appear early in life, and are thought to have a long evolutional history, includes happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust.
A smile that emerges between 6 and 10 weeks in response to seeing familiar people.
Emotion that requires cognitive development and an awareness of self, such as empathy, embarrassment, shame, and guilt.
The ability to adjust and control our emotional state to influence how and when emotions are expressed.
Seeking information from caregivers about how to interpret unfamiliar or ambiguous events by observing their emotional expressions and reactions.
Emotional Display Rules
Unstated cultural guidelines for acceptable emotions and emotional expression that are communicated to children via parents' emotional behavior, expressions, and socialization.
Also known as stranger anxiety; an infant's expression of fear of unfamiliar people.
Characteristic differences among individuals in emotional reactivity, self-regulation, and activity that influence reactions to the environment and are stable and appear early in life.
A temperament characterized by regularity in biological rhythms, the tendency to adapt easily to new experiences, and a general cheerfulness.
A temperament characterized by irregularity in biological rhythms, slow adaptation to change, and a tendency for intense negative reactions.
A temperament characterized by mild irregularity in biological rhythms, slow adaptation to change, and mildly negative mood.
Goodness of Fit
The compatibility between a child's temperament and his or her environment, especially the parent's temperament and childrearing methods; the greater the degree of match, the more favorable the child's adjustment.
A lasting emotional tie between two individuals who strive to maintain closeness and act to ensure that the relationship continues.
The use of a caregiver as a foundation from which to explore and return to for emotional support.
Also known as separation protest; occurs when infants respond to the departure of an attachment figure with distress and crying.
Internal Working Model
A set of expectations about one's worthiness of love and the availability of attachment figures during times of distress.
Security of Attachment
The extent to which an individual feel that an attachment object, such as a caregiver, can reliably meet his or her needs; measured by the Strange Situation.
A structured laboratory procedure that measures the security of attachment by observing infants'reactions to being separated from the caregiver in an unfamiliar environment.
The attachment pattern in which an infant uses the caregiver as a secure base from which to explore, seeks contact during reunions, and is easily comforted by the caregiver.
An attachment pattern in which an infant avoids connecting with the caregiver, showing no distress when separated from a caregiver, such as during the Strange Situation, and does not seem to care about the caregiver's return.
An attachment pattern in which an infant shows anxiety and uncertainty, showing great distress at separation from the caregiver during the Strange Situation and simultaneously seeks and avoids contact upon the caregiver's return.
An attachment in which an infant shows inconsistent, contradictory behavior in the Strange Situation, suggesting a conflict between approaching and fleeing the caregiver and perhaps fear.
The ability to identify the self, typically measured as mirror recognition.
A classification of the self-based on broad ways in which people differ, such as sex, age, and physical characteristics, which children use to guide their behavior.
Basic emotions are also known as ______.
An infant who scores high on the extraversion/surgency dimension in Mary Rothbart's model of temperament would be most likely to respond like which of the following infants?
When Eva meets a puppy for the first time, it barks and Eva startles. Then she smiles and reaches for the puppy.
Of the following, which is the best example of an infant regulation their emotions?
Jethro is a child who always sucks his thumb when he is upset and about to cry.
The ethological theory of attachment is most accurately described by which statement?
An attachment bond is biologically driven.
Katie describes herself as a 2-year-old girl who is really strong. This description of herself is called ______.
Of the following infants, which is most likely to be classified as insecure-resistant in Ainsworth's Strange Situation?
Baby Boris is very preoccupied with his mother and doesn't want to play with the toys. When she comes back in the room, he continues to cry and wants his mother to pick him up, but when she does, he kicks to get down.
Compared to other countries, North American mothers are more likely to ______.
respond less to infants' expression of negative emotions
Giacomo's parents did not consistently respond to his needs when he was an infant. They did not hold him very often or pick him up when he cried. Based on what we know about the psychosocial tasks of infancy and toddlerhood, what can we assume will occur for Giacomo as he gets older?
Giacomo will have adjustment difficulties because he was not able to develop confidence and individuality as a child.
Which of the following is most likely to help foster a sense of trust in infants?
Parents consistently pick up the infants when they cry and change them and feed them as needed.
Why is attachment considered to have lifelong consequences?
It becomes part of a child's internal working model of self and his or her feelings of worthiness of love.
Which of the following describes a category that a toddler might use self that a toddler might use to describe the categorical self?
The ethological theory of attachment is most accurately described by which statment?
An attachment bond is biologically driven.
Which of the following parental behaviors would be most likely to foster a sense of mistrust in infants?
Parents let the infant cry until he or she has learned to self-soothe.
Recommended textbook explanations
Carolyn Seefer, Mary Ellen Guffey
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY CONNECT MIND/RESRCH/EVERYDY EXPER
E Bruce Goldstein
E Bruce Goldstein
Cengage Advantage Books: Cognitive Psychology
E Bruce Goldstein, Robert Hershberger
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