38 terms

CHPTR 39: Nervous System and Musculoskeletal System Disorders

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HEMIPLEGIA
Paralysis on one side of the body
PARAPLEGIA
Paralysis in the legs and lower trunk
QUADRIPLEGIA
Paralysis in the arms, legs, and trunk; tetraplegia
ARTHROPLASTY
The surgical replacement of a joint
CLOSED FRACTURE
The bone is broken but the skin is intact; simple fracture
OPEN FRACTURE
The broken bone has come through the skin; compound fracture
STROKE
-Disease that affects the arteries that supply blood to the brain.
-The third leading cause of death in the US
-The leading cause of disability in adults
BRAIN ATTACK
Stroke
CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT
CVA; Stroke
A STROKE CAN OCCUR WHEN:
A blood vessel in the brain bursts (cerebral hemorrhage); or A blood clot blocks blood flow to the brain
WHEN A STROKE HAPPENS:
-Blood cells in the affected area do not get enough oxygen
-Brain cells die
-Brain damage occurs
-Functions controlled by that part of the brain are lost
STROKE WARNING SIGNS
-Sudden numbness or weakness of face, arm, or leg
-Sudden confusion, trouble speaking, or understanding speech
-Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination
-Sudden severe headache with no known cause
TIA
Transient Ischemic Attack; Blood supply to the brain is interrupted for a short time
STROKE RISK FACTORS
-Age/Older persons are at greater risk
-Family History/Greater risk if parent or sibling has had a stroke
-Gender
-Race/Blacks are at greater risk than other groups because of hypertension and diabetes
-Heart Disease/Heart failure, heart attack, valve diseases, abnormal heart rhythms, artherosclerosis
-Smoking/Damages blood vessels
-Diabetes/Damages blood vessels
-High Blood Cholesterol
-Obesity
-Previous stroke or TIA
SEMI-FOWLER'S POSITION
When caring for a person with a stroke, the bed should be kept in this position
LATERAL or SIDE-LYING POSITION
This position prevents aspiration in a person with a stroke
STRONG (UNAFFECTED) SIDE
A person with a stroke should be approached from this side; objects are placed on this side
EVERY TWO HOURS
A person with a stroke should be turned or repositioned this often
RANGE-OF-MOTION EXCERCISES
Prevent contractures and strengthen affected extremities in a person with a stroke
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE
-Tremors
-Rigid, stiff muscles in arms, legs, neck and trunk
-Slow Movements
-Stooped posture and impaired balance
-Mask-like expression (the person cannot blink and smile)
TYPES OF MS
-Relapsing-remitting
-Primary progressive
-Secondary progressive
-Progressive-relapsing
RELAPSING-REMITTING MS
The person as symptoms that last a few weeks or months then go into remission followed by eventual relapse
PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE MS
The person's condition gradually declines with more and more symptoms w/o remissions
SECONDARY PROGRESSIVE MS
Affects most people with relasping remitting MS. More symptoms occur with each flare-up and the person's condition declines
PROGRESSIVE-RELAPSING
Affects people with primary progressive MS. Flare-ups occur with new symptoms and more damage
ALS
Amyotrophic lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig's disease); Attacks nerve cells that control voluntary muscles
INCOMPLETE SPINAL CORD DAMAGE
The spinal cord can still send messages to and from the brain; the person still has some sensory and motor function below the level of the injury
COMPLETE SPINAL CORD INJURY
The spinal cord cannot send messages to and from the brain. The person has no sensory or motor function below the level of injury; The higher the level of injury, the more functions lost
LUMBAR SPINAL CORD INJURY
Sensory and muscle function in the legs is lost (paraplegia)
THORACIC SPINAL CORD INJURY
Sensory and muscle function below the chest is lost (paraplegia)
CERVICAL SPINAL CORD INJURY
Sensory and muscle function of arms, legs and trunk are lost (quadriplegia)
AUTONOMIC DYSREFLEXIA
Affects persons with spinal cord injuries above the mid-thoracic level. There is uncontrolled stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system
MOST COMMON CAUSES OF AUTONOMIC DYSREFLEXIA
Full bladder, constipation or fecal impaction, and skin disorders
STUPOR
An unresponsive state; the person can be briefly aroused
COMA
The person is unconscious, does not respond, is unaware, and cannot be aroused
VEGETATIVE STATE
The person is uncounscious and unaware of surroundings; he or she has sleep-wake cycles and periods of being alert
PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE
The person is in a vegetative state for more than one month
TREATMENT FOR AUTONOMIC DYSREFLEXIA
Raising the head of the bed 45 degrees or having the person sit upright if allowed.