APES Chapter 9 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (26)
The small space found within permeable layers of rock and sediment that contain groundwater.
Aquifers where water can easily flow in and out of.
Aquifers that are surrounded by a layer of impermeable clay or rock, which keeps the water from flowing in or out.
The uppermost level at which the water in a given area fully saturates the rock or soil.
When water from precipitation percolates through the soil and works its way into an aquifer.
Cone of Depression
The area created around a water table adjacent to a well where water is being rapidly withdraw and is lowered the most; an area where there is no longer in any groundwater.
When saltwater infiltrates an area of rapid pumping, making the water in the wells salty.
A depression of the land surface as a result of groundwater being pumped. Cracks and fissures can appear in the land. Subsidence is virtually an irreversible process.
When excess water spreads onto the land adjacent to the river, depositing nutrient rich sediment and improving the fertility of the soil.
Lakes that have low productivity due to low amounts of nutrients (such as phosphorus and nitrogen) in the water.
Lakes with a moderate level of productivity.
Lakes with a high level of productivity.
Substances (concrete/baked soil) that prevent water (from heavy rainfalls) from soaking into the ground.
An enlarged bank built on the each side of the river to reduce flooding.
Similar to levees, but are typically built to prevent ocean waters from flooding adjacent land.
A barrier that runs across a river or stream to control the flow of water.
A series of ascending pools providing a passage for salmon to swim upstream past a dam.
Canals or ditches used to carry water from one location to another.
A method of desalinization where heat is used to boil saltwater, leaving salt behind; then, the steam that is produced is captured and condensed, yielding pure water.
A method of desalinization where water is forced through a thin semipermeable membrane at high speeds; the water can pass through the semipermeable membrane, but the salt cannot.
The oldest irrigation technique, which is easy and expensive; involves the digging of trenches (furrows) along crop rows and filling them with water, which seeps into the ground and provides moisture to plant roots; about 65% efficient
Involves flooding an entire field with water and letting the water soak in evenly; generally more disruptive to plant growth than furrow irrigation; about 70% to 80% efficient.
More expensive and uses more energy; water is pumped from a well into an apparatus that contains a series of spray nozzles that spray water across the field; 75% to 95% efficient.
Uses a slowly dripping hose that is either laid on the ground or buried beneath the soil; has the added benefit of reducing weed growth because the surface remains dry, discouraging weed germination; over 95% efficient.
The cultivation of crop plants under greenhouse conditions with their roots immersed in a nutrient-rich solution, but no soil; water not taken up by the plant can be reused; method uses 95% less water than traditional irrigation techniques, and no pesticides need to be used; more crops can be grown at any time of the year.
All of the wastewater that drains from washing machines, sinks, dishwashers, bathtubs, or showers, and can be reused for non-sanitary purposes.