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Week of March 30
Terms in this set (30)
Nobles of the Sword
Descendents of original medieval nobility. They wanted to resist the monarchy and control positions in government, military and church.
Nobles of the Robe
The nobles whose nobility was either acquired by serving in the bureaucracy or had purchased them.
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
gold and silver in the form of bars
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
Cape of Good Hope
Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.
English Navigation Acts
stated that British goods went in British ships manned by British crews only to British ports. 1651
a trade route that exchanged goods between the West Indies, the American colonies, and West Africa
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
Indian troops who served in the British army
Francisco de Vitoria
Often referred to as the father of human rights; defined conditions necessary for a just war and argued that all men are free under the law of nature.
Bartolome de Las Casas
Dominican priest who spoke out against mistreatment of Native Americans
Mine located in upper Peru (modern Bolivia); largest of New World silver mines; produced 80 percent of all Peruvian silver.
Enslaved for labor, back breaking conditions, high quota demand, tutored, died
pieces of eight
Spanish coins minted from silver from the new world; became the first global currency
Inter Caetera Divinai
papal bill that said the Catholic church was the supreme authority
assigned land to Spanish and Portuguese
Pope Alexander VI
religious authority over all people
spread of christianity
A statement delicered in Spanish explaining the obligations of Indian people to the king of Spain and to the church and requiring their cooperation; Indians who failed to accept the statemtnt could be killed or enslaved
What key commodities influenced the growth of European expansion and capitalism?
What reasons does the author give for why European Expansion was so "successful"?
What important inventions aided the growth of Dutch commercial power?
What made the Caribbean so lucrative for the British?
How many enslaved people were forcibly removed from Africa through the Atlantic Slave Trade (highest estimate)?
What made Spain the largest overseas Empire? What were its challenges?
Describe the major demographic changes that occurred as a result of Spanish colonization of Mesoamerica?
rise of Europeans dominance
millions people from Africa to new world
millions of loss of life in Americas
soldiers and missionaries
spread of christianity, Catholicism
ecological - new products, trade - sugar, animals, wheat, tomatoes
What is the estimated loss experienced by the indigenous population?
Spread of disease
lack of immunity
plaque, measles, small pox, etc.
How might indigenous persons have understood what was happening to them?
What was the connection between the Atlantic Slave Trade and the colonization of Mesoamerica and South America?
What was the purpose of the requerimiento? How was is used?
justify act of violence
to be read to the indigenous people who Europeans arrived
read in language couldn't understand
In what ways did De Vitoria and Las Casas challenge colonization and support indigenous rights?
Las Casas- spokesman for indigenous people
envision world where Spanish forced to leave
thought it was good to spread faith, but not forcefully
laborers brought in from Africa
not the same right for africans
De Vitoria - early voice of establishment of international law, human rights, Indigienous- American Indians
basic rights that need to be respected
no conversion over force is a genuine conversion
Representative early skepticism to understand the ultimate truth
creator of essay
universally accessible - relate to him as human
still prevalent today
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