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26 terms

organization of the body

STUDY
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superior
toward the head end or uppr part of a structor or the body, above
inferior (caudal)
away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body, below
ventral
toward or at the front of the body, in front of
dorsal (posterior)
toward or at the back of the body, behind
medial
toward or at the midline of the body, on the inner side of
lateral
away from the midline of the body on the outer side of
proximal
closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
distal
farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body drunki
superficial (external)
toward or at the body surface
deep (internal)
away from the body surface, more internal
flexion
bending movement that decreases the angle of th ejoint and brings the articulating bones closer together-usually occurs along the sagittal plane
extension
the reverse flexion, increases the angle of the joint along the sagittal plane
hyperextension
increasing angle of joint beyond the normal anatomical position
dorsiflexion
bending motion of the angle that would allow you to stand on your heels; standing on your heels
plantarflexion
bending moving that occurs at the ankle joint that would allow you to stand on your toes
abduction
movement of a limb away from the midline of the body; movement occurs along the frontal plane
adduction
movement of limb toward the midline of the body
circumduction
movement of a limb in a circular motion
medial (internal) rotation
turning inside; crossing over; rotating the anterior surface of a limb toward the midline of the body; movement is common at the hip & shoulder points;
lateral (external) rotation
rotating the anterior surface of a limb away from the midline of the body; common at the hip & should points
supination
rotating the forearm so the palms face anterior; holding cup of soup; bones are parallel
pronation
rotating the forearm so that the palms face posteriorly or interiorly; bones cross over each other;
inversion
sole of the foot is turned medially; inward;
eversion
sole of the foot is turned laterally; outward;
protraction
anterior movement along the transverse plane; forward;
retraction
opposite of protraction; posterior movement along the transverse plane;