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WSET L3 - Vineyard
Terms in this set (40)
Two ways to propogate a vine
Cutting: section of shoot that is planted and grows into new plant
Layering: takes place in vineyard. Cane is bent down and buried with tip facing back up out of the ground. Buried part takes root at which stage it is cut from the original plant. Due to phyloxera, this is less common.
Make part of flower of one vine transferred to female part of flower of another vine. Pollinated flower develops grapes with seeds and if the seed is planted and grows, it will be a new variety because its genetic makeup is different to its parents.
New variety produced from two parents of same species. Technically all modern grapes are crossings (Cab Sav: Cab Franc + Sav Blanc) but it is generally used to refer to new varieties bred by research. Ex: Müller Thurgau = Riesling + Ma Deleine Royale and Pinotage= Pinot Noir + Cinsault
Parents come from two different species. Typically have atleast one American parent, and therefore are not widely used for winemaking (exception: Vidal in Canada) but rootstocks are used throughout the world.
American vines and phylloxera
They both originate in North America so vines evolved with a resistance. Clog the mouth of the insect with a sticky sap. Also form protective layers behind the feeding wound made by the insect to prevent secondary infection.
Places in the world without phylloxera
Chile, some parts of Argentina, South Australia
Reasons for using rootstocks
Protect against nematodes
Provide better resistance to drought
Types of grafting
Bench grafting: done in lab on new plants by machine, stored in warm environment to encourage two parts to fuse.
Head grafting: done in vineyard if wanting to change varieties. Vine cut back to trunk and new variety is grafted on. If successful, new variety will be produced with the next vintage.
Factors affecting heat
Winter temp at which vine is at risk
Earth is used to cover up a graft during winter
Ways to protect against frost
Vineyard design- plant on slopes, train vines high to avoid worst of cold air
Factors affecting sunlight
Latitude - daylight hours longer the further from the equator. Important in Germany.
Seas + Lakes- large bodies of water often mean cloud cover. Sometimes there is reflected light from bodies of water that is of benefit.
Aspect- vineyards facing equator get most sunlight. Greater distance from equator the weaker the sun's energy. Steeper slopes benefit more from sun.
Water is drawn up to the leaves. Warmer it is, faster the water evaporates and therefore the more water it needs from soil to compensate.
Three types irrigation
Drip - best but expensive
Sprinklers - cheaper than drop but waste water and create conditions conducive to disease.
Flood - very cheap but need source and also need to be flat.
Region with high and one with low vintage variation
High - Bordeaux
Low - Central Valley, California
Climate classification average temps
Cool: 16.5 or below
Moderate: 16.5 - 18.5
Warm: 18.5 - 21
Hot: Above 21
Examples of Continental climates
Chablis, Champagne, Central Otago
Examples of Maritime climates
Examples of Mediterranean climates
Throughout Mediterranean Coastal California
South Eastern Australia
Decomposing plant & animal materials - rich in nutrients and good water retention
Symptom of lack of nutrients - leaves yellow and photosynthesis impaired, therefore grapes struggle to ripen. This can be solved by compost or fertilizer.
Mixture of sand and clay particles- good drainage but enough water retention for vine growth.
Key nutrients vine needs in soil
Problem with too much nutrients in soil
Vine too vigorous- dense canopy that shades grapes
Very little permanent wood - often only trunk. Can be spur pruned or replacement cane pruned.
Trunk with one or more permanent wood horizontal arms called cordons. Usually spur pruned. Takes longer to establish bc of permanent wood, but makes mechanisation easier.
Training definition and two main types
Shape of permanent wood of vine.
Multiple short sections of one-yr-old wood with 2-3 buds. Can be along cordon with cordon training or top of trunk on head trained vines.
Replacement cane pruning
One yr old wood are long canes with 8 - 20 buds. Typically tied to horizontal trellis. Most often on head trained vines. More complex and requires suitable work force. Also referred to as guyot.
No trellising. Typically head trained and spur pruned. Best suited to warm or hot, dry, sunny regions where extra shade protects grapes. Ex: Barossa, Southern Rhone. Cannot be mechanised
Vine training system where head trained, spur pruned vines are tied together at the top. Helps expose bunches to air and sun. Used in Beaujolais.
Microscopic worms that attack roots and interfere with water and nutrient uptake. Prevention is better than cure. Sanitizing soil and resistant rootstock.
Less fruitset than normal after flowering. Due to cold, cloudy or rainy weather during pollination
Grapes grow without seeds and remain small - this is due to cold, cloudy or wet weather during pollination.
Small insects that spread bacterial diseases. There are no treatments or cures. Strict quarantine and interrupting the lifecycle of sharpshooters is the only prevention. Once bacterial disease has infected a vine, the only way to eradicate is by digging up the vines and sanitizing the land (same as with viruses,
Powdery mildew. Thrive in warm, humid conditions. Controlled by sprays. Traditionally sulfur for powdery and copper- based Bordeaux mixture for downy.
Matter other than grapes
Benefits for machine harvesting
Speed - when weather is a threat, or with varieties like Sav Blanc that can become over-ripe quickly
Can work through the night, so grapes come in cooler, saving money and energy cooling grapes back down and also slows oxidation.
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