CADS 1740 Exam 3

5 elements of design
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Actual lines come fromLayout structure (pleats, gathers, etc.) Surface structure (stripes) Light structure (shadows)Implied linesdo NOT actually Exist in space and are created by eye movement between components of an image (creating these line are a learned behavior)5 formal qualities of line1. Length 2. Width 3. uniformity 4. Direction 5. Softness of EdgeLengthShort, choppy line = flow Long, flowing lines = lengthWidththick vs thinUniformityHorizontal, vertical, diagonal direct or meandering straight, angled, curved lines move in directions in either a consistent or meandering waysoftness of edgesoft or hard edges hard are easier to distinguish than soft edgesangular lineabrupt changes in directioncurved linegradual changes in directionOuter linesrepresent the edge of a form within the 5Ps: -The edge of a building (property) -The edge of an item (product) -A person's body (people)Inner lineslie within a bondary of a form: -Create a sense of unity -Visually divide space -Create directional eye movement -Can be used for optical effects7 formal qualities of shape-Size -Type of Shape (geometric or organic) -Placement ordered or random) -Silhouette -Open-Closed Effect -Flat-Rounded Effect -Planar SeparationSize-Tiny shapes can be read as implied texture -Large shapes can become a focus Larger product images are associated with enhanced attention, pleasure, and attitude toward the product or web site--> purchase intention? Larger window displays attract more attentionType of Shape (geometric or organic)Geometric: are created from straight or angular lines Squares, rectangles, triangles, circles Organic: are created from irregular curved lines. Contain curvilinear lines. Shapes created by oil on water, marbled prints, animal print on fabricPlacement (ordered or random)Ordered Pattern or Placement: when shapes are placed in a distinguishable pattern. Random Pattern or Placement: when shapes are arranged with no uniformity or regularity.Silhouette-the outer boundary -contour of the garment -5 general silhouettesOpen-Closed EffectThe boundary of a shape is the apparent outline, border, or edge that is formed against its background.Ordered patternwhen shapes are placed in a distinguishable pattern.Random Patternwhen shapes are arranged with no uniformity or regularity.5 silhouettes1. Tubular 2. A-line 3. Hourglass 4. Wedge 5. BellOpen boundaryformed when elements of the design of the product and people blend with those of the surrounding consumer environment.Closed boundaryclearly separates the product and people from the surrounding consumer through differences in design elements.DimensionalityWhen looking at 2D images of 3D forms, an image may vary in its apparent level of dimensionalityFlat effectOccurs when the 3D nature is deemphasized and contour becomes the most important visual feature. (Flat layout structures, dark values, bright light from behind a figure, non-reflective surfaces)Rounded effectEmphasizes the cylindrical nature of the object rather than the contour (Layout structures that conform to the body, medium values, light from the side or front, reflective surfaces)Planar Separationresults when there is large variability in apparent distance of shapes within a figure enhanced by differences in - color intensity and value - surface reflectivity - direction or width of lines - size and edge of shapes - lightingPlanar integrationoccurs when the shapes within a figure appear to be at the same distance from the viewer.What can emotional experience be affected by?-The degree of energy expressed by line -Abruptness of degree of change -Placement of Letters -Thickness and Variation of linesDynamic linesThick lines are more arousing and have a stronger sense of dominance than thin lines.What are the expressive qualities of organic shapes?-Suggest a yielding to pressure or weight -Perceived as pleasurable -Not as dominateWhat are the expressive qualities of geometric shapes-Convey physical energy such as gravity, weight, and centripetal force -Express power and controlsymbolic qualities of line and shapeA line or shape becomes a symbol when there is a specific meaning attached to it. Symbols may or may not have physical resemblance to the object or activity symbolized.shape meaningsThin = refined, delicate Thick = study, strong Straight = static, controlled Curved = graceful, relaxing, and feminine Angular = tension producing, exciting, and masculine Meandering = confusing, whimsical Vertical = powerful, formal, adn fighting gravity (adds length) Horizontal = peacefulness, passivity (adds width) Diagonal = dynamic, excitement, and movement Smooth = calming, elegant Jagged = rustic, uncontrolledWhat are the meanings behind organic shapes?symbolize objects from nature and more feminine forms. more memorable and attractive. (womens)What are the meanings behind geometric shapes?may communicate concepts such as masculinity, regularity, and predictabilityMeanings associated with Serif fontSmall strokes on the ends of the lettersMeanings associated with Sans serif fontNo strokes; cleaner, more modern appearanceMeanings associated with Cursive fontPlayful, feminine, casual, personalized nature; look like handwritingSymbolic features of typographylogos typography in signage labels packaging advertising materialsSize of lettersuppercase = importance lowercase = innovationWhat do Developers need to do effectively in terms of Line and Shape?-Should be sensitive to the interaction of line and shape within the product, between products, and in product presentations. -Line and shape can harmonize products in a line. -Line and shape can create focus on the body or environment -Planar separation should be considered -Appropriate size of shapes should be consideredWhat do Gatekeepers need to do effectively in terms of Line and Shape?-Sensitivity to trends in line and shape -Synthesize trends in street/ high fashionWhat do Promoters need to do effectively in terms of Line and Shape?-Sensitivity to the relationship of line and shape between the product and people. -Unify shapes among product, property, and product presentation.TextureColor, light, line, and shape are perceived through vision; however, texture is perceived through touchTexture definedTexture describes the uniformity of variation of the surface of an object Texture aides in the perception of 3-D form, adding more dimension or volume to a surface Texture can be actual or impliedImportance of textureTexture is essential in building awareness from a brand and product Texture may also differentiate a brand from competitors by: Creating an appealing sensory form Affecting the emotions of consumers Adding to the brand's storytactile sensationsTactile perception of texture occurs when all individual touches an object Tactile perception - the brain's ability to understand (perceive) information coming from the skin Three types: Pain Touch TemperatureActual texture-is due to variation or a lack of variation -Can be felt by the skinImplied texture-the visual quality of a surface -Can be seen but it cannot be physically feltFabric handThe way a fabric feels to the touchFabric drapeThe manner in which a fabric falls or hangs over a 3-D formObjective qualities of fabric hand and drape: qualitiesFlexibility Compressibility Extensibility Resilience [recovery] Density Surface contour Surface contour Surface friction Thermal character Reflectance ThicknessObjective qualities of fabric hand and drape: ContinuumPliable to stuff Soft to hard Stretchy to non stretchy Springy to limp Compact to open Rough to smooth Harsh to slippery Cool to warm Matte to shiny Thick to thinObjective qualities of fabric hand and drape: Fabric examplesSpandex to unwashed denim Silk to cotton canvas Jersey knit to denim Polyester to cotton Felt to lace Harris tweed to silk Burlap to satin Nylon knit/cotton to corduroy Felt to sateen/satin Velvet to chiffonSurface structure from fabrics influenced by:Characteristics of fiber, yarn structure, fabric construction, finishes, or surface designLayout Structurethe form of construction details may alter the textural appearance of the product (must be close together)What can fabric textures be created by?-Fiber -Yarn structure -Fabric construction -Fabric Structure -Finish -Printed surface design -Layout structureFiberbasic unit in making yarns and fabrics Can be natural (cotton, flax (linen), wool, silk, etc.) or man made (polyester, nylon, rayon, spandex, etc.)Yarncollection of fibers that are laid or twisted together, the twist can affect textureHow can fabric construction affect fabric texture?it effects the end result of the fabricWhat are the 4 main types of fabric construction?-Knit -Woven -Lace -Non-Wovens: felt, fur, leatherKnit fabric-interloped -stretchy -wrinkle lessWoven fabric-are interlaced at right angles -are not know to be stretchy but they can be strong.Lacehas intermeshed yarns with little stretch (yarns are twisted around each other)Non-woven(felt, fur, leather) - made without spinning or weavingFinishcan be applied to fibers, yarns, or to the surface of the constructed fabric to change the texture -Thermal, mechanical, and chemical treatments can be applied. -Bleaching, embossing, permanent press, mercerizing (smoother yarns), crimping, etc.Printed surface design-Paint, dye, or flock printing may add actual and implied textural effects and shapes to fabric. -Small, repetitive patterns printed on fabrics may create implied texture -some paints and dyes stiffen fabricFabric Patterncreated in the fabric itself during construction using colored yarnsApplied on the fabric surfacecreated after construction of fabric (non-textured forms - roller printed, block printing, screen printing, tie dye, batik textural forms - embroidery, applique, beading, sequins)Determinacythe thickness or clarity of a visual surfaceDeterminant surfaces-Definite -Sharp -Clear -order -Geometric -UniformIndeterminate surfaces-Lacks Clarity -Lines and shapes on many planes -Organic shapes -Random placement -Meandering lines -Lack of Uniformity -Reflective and textured surfacesVisual weightThe visual weight of apparel products may affect the perceived weight of the form Ex. "flat" materials don't add volume to the bodyLevels of visual weightsize, volume and densityWhat adds to visual weight?fabric textureHow does light affect texture?Intense light: eliminates much of the shadow Low levels of light: does not create strong shadow Medium light: creates highest degree of contrast in light and shadowTactile textureSmoothness: soothing (pleasurable), peaceful, calming (PJ fabrics) Roughness: irritation, arousingVisual textureFragile texture: Delicate mood, softness, eleganceAuditory textureJangle of metal = arousingSymbolic meanings for smoothControllable, simpleSymbolic meanings for shinyFormal, quality, aloof, exciting , clean, arousingSymbolic meanings for courseCasual, uncontrolled, natural, unrefinedSymbolic meanings for fuzzyApproachable, relaxed, calmingSymbolic meanings for thickLush, comforting, encompassingSymbolic meanings for thin, transparentDelicate, fragileSymbolic meanings for flexibleControllable, dynamicSymbolic meanings for lightweightYoung, free-spiritedWhat do Gatekeepers need to do effectively in terms of texture?-must be aware of fashion trends in texture, including visual weight -Trends within product categories - jackets -Broader textural trends - leatherWhat do Developers need to do effectively in terms of texture?-Unity within a line or an ensemble -Transition or gradation between unlike pieces of an ensemble -Focus and interest within an ensemble -Separation between pieces in an ensembleWhat do Promoters need to do effectively in terms of texture?need to consider the interaction of color, light, and texture in product presentations and promotional activitiesdesign principles of organizationrefer to the arrangements of design units that produce cohesion, which leads to a decrease in complexity. (rules of design)Rhythmpredictable pattern, eye movement across a repeating pattern of units in a form, resulting in a feeling of organized movementPaceinvolves the impression of speed or action implied in the repetition of units, created by # of units used & distance between them, smaller units = more repetition, closer looks fasterregular patternIdentical motifs or visual beats Equal amount of space between motifsalternating patternRepetition of a regular predictable sequence, lower in complexity Can be achieved by changing motifs at regular intervals Lower in complexity because the pattern is predictableprogressive patternrepetition with a gradual change of units or placement (more complex) Contain a gradual change in motif or visual beat each time is it repeatedradiation patternthe eye moves outward from the center across the lines, can be related to emphasisbroken patternRhythm can function effectively even when broken - when a pattern is interrupted Sometimes interruption creates focusbalancebalance of visual weight The sense of evenly distributed weight, resulting in the overall feeling of stability Balance contributes to completeness or unity of design Balance in apparel products make the body appear stabledetermining balancefelt axes are invisible horizontal or vertical axestypes of balancesymmetrical (formal), asymmetrical (informal), radialvertical balanceDraw a line of vertically down and image or designed and compare the left and right sides Some kind of evenly related distribution is necessary to create a sense of stability in the designformal vertical balanceSymmetrical mirror image least complex, basic, classic provides dignity, conservatism, and formalityinformal vertical balanceAsymmetrical Each side is different but there is a feeling of equal weight distribution Adds drama, complexity, and interest Careful placement of the units of different weight is essentialhorizontal balanceDraw a line horizontally across an image or design and compare the top and bottom areas The goal of horizontal balance is for the top of the garment to balance the bottomradial balanceThe arrangement of units (lines, shapes, colors, textures) around or originating from a central point Radial balance creates the feeling of equal weight distribution around the center Provides the greatest complexityproportionthe relative size and scale relationship between the size of units and the bodyRule of Thirds1/3 to 2/3 ratio being at the most aesthetically pleasing division of spaces (can be applied vertically or horizontally)ScaleRelationship between a standard measure and a compositional unit. relationship between body and apparelemphasiscreates focus using contrasts, isolation or placementelements of designColor Lighting Texture Line and shape Spacestore lighting: ambientprovides light to perform activities, basic visibilityColor Rendering Index (CRI)A system for evaluating metameric capabilities of various light sources (0-100)store lighting: accentbeams or concentrated light, specific small areas (5x illumination than others) (3 to 1 or 10 to 1 in big stores)store lighting: perimeterwalls and ceilings, from main isles to walls, makes place feel biggerincandescent lightyellow portion, warm glow, homes usually to intensify red, orange, yellow ($$$, UV damage)Fluorescent Lightingblue area, not warm, intense light w/o heat, discount retailers)diffusionconcentration and direction of light rays, reduces glare