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PSU Nutr 100 Exam 2

Flavor and Tenderness
Concentrated energy source

Why we eat fatty foods...

<10% Kcal

Limiting fat intake to ____ will cause deficencies

Vitamins A D E & K
Essential fatty acids (Omega 3 & 6)

Limiting Fat will make us deficient in

Regulates Temperature,
Provides Insulation
Cushions & Protects Organs

Body fat helps us...

- Absorbed longer than protein or CHO
- Provides the sensation of being full

When dietary fat is consumed in the body it:

Cardiovascular disease

~40% of Americans have a form of?

- Coronary Heart Disease
- High BP
- Stroke

Types of cardiovascular diseases

Coronary Heart Disease

CHD stands for


Primary cause for reduced blood flow in heart

Plaque to form along the vessels making them narrow

Injury to blood vessels causes...


Builds up in blood vessels blocking blood flow

1) High total blood cholesterol
2) High LDL
3) High blood pressure

BLOOD RELATED factors that cause injury to blood vessels

1) Smoking
2) obesity
3) Diet
4) Chronic stress

LIFE STYLE FACTORS that cause injury to blood vessels

- Uncontrolled diabetes
- Genetics

Other causes of injury to blood vessels


= Blood vessels in the heart



- aging
- genetics
- diabetes

Uncontrollable factors related to heart diease

Controllable factors related to heart disease

- uncontrolled diabetes
- High blood pressure
- smoking
- Phsyical activity
- Excess weight
- Low HDL
- High LDL
- Excessive alcohol consumption
- Dietary factors


cholesterol in the blood is carried in packages called

1) Triglicerides
2) Phospholipids
3) Steroids

The three types of lipids

> 200 mg/dl

Total cholesterol levels greater than _____ are associated with CHD death rate


Trigs make up ___ % of fats in foods


Glycerol + 3 fatty acids = ?

Omega 6 Fatty Acids

Located in cell membranes, nerves, & brain
- Increases blood clotting factors, can lead to high blood pressure (HBP)
- Healthy skin, normal functioning of reproductive system and CNS

Omega 3 Fatty Acids

Located in cell membranes and the eye
- Reduce blood clotting factors, improves HBP
- Important component of the brain and nervous system
Current Concern: Intake too low, ratio with omega 6 intake is off


Two types of Fatty Acids:
Decreases -->Blood Clotting, blood pressure, fat forming in arteries
Needed: Brain development & hand eye coordination


Have a unique ring structure


Found in every body cell
Needed to make: Bile acids (lipid digestion), Vit D, Testosterone & Estrogen (reproductive hormones)

Limited to 20-35% Total K cal

Dietary fats are needed but limited to _____

9 Kcal

The number of Kcals in each gram of fat

67 grams of fat

Grams of fat recommended for a standard 2000 Kcal diet

Saturated and Trans Fats

2 types of not so good fats, should be decreased whenever possible

<10% Kcal

Your diet should have ___ % of saturated fatty acids


Monounsaturated & Polyunsaturated fats: Choose these over saturated fats

Coronary Heard Disease (CHD)

Dietary recommendations for reducing fat are based on the risk of ____

Limit Saturated Fats by

- eat smaller portions
- dressing on the side
- substitute w/ lower fat foods
- cut the amount added into making foods
- Watch label for added sugars
- eat fruit, share w friends
- Limit fried foods and lardy foods

>4.5G SFA

High fat meats have ___G SFA in them

<4.5G SFA

Lean sources of meats have ____g's of SFA in them

Alternative pro0tein sources

Beans, nuts, soy products are:

Saturated fat reduction Strategies

- deacrease dressings
- choose lower sat fat foods

Low Fat

Must have 3 grams or less of fat

Fat Free

Less than .05grams of fat

Low cholesterol

contain 20 mg or less of cholesterol

SFA - sat fat
MUFA - mono unsat
PUFA - Poly unsat

Three types of Fatty acids used to make triglycerides and phospholipids

Low sat fat

contain less than 1 gram of sat fat per serving


Examples of sources: olive oil, canola opil, peanut oil, nuts
- decrease total cholesterol& LDL (*No effect on HDL)
- deacrease blood clotting factors, decr. BP, provide antioxidants


Sources include: corn oil, soybean oil, walnuts, flax seed, vegetable oil, fatty fish

Mufas and PUfas

Decrease blood trigs
Prevent blood clots
Lower BP
Protect against irregular heart beats
lower inflamation

>3g Omega 3 Fatty acids

Avoid getting over ___ g's of omega 3 FA


process of filling unsaturated fatty acids with hydroden to make it saturated


naturally occuring in some animal foods are formed during a commercial manufacturing process called "hydrogenation"

Trans -fats

Were once thought to be good for us:
They raise LDL, lower HDL
A label claiming to be ___ free can have up to 0.5g in it

Protein functions

Building blocks for growth of muscle / bone
repair damaged cells
can be enzymes
- speeds up breakdown of reactions
can be hormones
Form antibodies
Maintain acid & base balance
maintains fluid and electrolyte balance

PH is acidic

Protein in our body will denature and can result in coma or death if PH gets too ___

amino acids

building blocks of protein

9 essential

There are __ essential amino acids

11 non essential

There are __ non essentionlamino acids


AMDR of protein is:

0.8g per kg body weight

Sedentary adult protein needs

1.2 to 1.4g per kg BW

Protein needs for endurance atheletes

1.6 to q.7g per kg bw

Protein needs for strength/power atletes

Fruits and fats

Types of foods that dont haev any protein

Sedentary 41G, Actual 61g

RDA 135LB female for protein is

Sedentary - 64G, Actual 80G

RDA protein for 175Lb Male

6oz grains = 18g protein
2.5c veggies = 10g protein
3c milk = 24g pro
5.5 oz meat = 38 g pro
Tot = 90g FOR 2000 CALORIES

USDA Guidelines for a 2000 kcal diet for protein follow:

8-10oz grains = 24-30g pro
3-4c veggies = 12-16g pro
3c milk = 24 g pro
6.5-7oz meat & beans = 45-49 G protein
TOT = 105-119g FOR 2400 - 3000 CAL DIET

USDA Food guide for atheletes 2400 CAL 3000 Cal diet follow

Endurance females = 86 g pro
Power females = 104 g pro

A 135lb female athelte would get this much protein:

Endurance males = 111g
Power males = 135 g protein

RDA for a 175lb athletic guy protein from USDA food guielines are:

Complete protein

Protein that contains all 9 essential amino acids

Incomplete proteins

Proteins that lack atleast 1 of the essemtial amino acids

> 35% total kcal
> 2g/kg body weight

Too much protein

in those with already compromised kidney function

Too much protein wont cause kidney failure but will:

~40% - 50% total Kcal protein

Atkins diet - short term success

20-30% total kcal

Moderate protein intake:
-help with weight loss and maintainance
-may help regulare blood sugars when protein replaces refined carbohydrates and sugars

Protein energy malnutrition (PEM)

A deficiency of protein or both protein and energy


PEM - for adults
protein & energy
severe weight loss


PEM - Childeren 1-3 in age
Protein only
Enlarged liver
some wt loss

Fat cells never go away

In the film we are told fat cells ___

100 lbs

With gastric band the doctor believed that rocky could loose ___ lbs


Percentage of individuals who get gastric bypass who get to a normal weight

- Nervous system surrounding the gut determines when and how much we should eat

The role of the gut in weight regulation :


How much weight did rocky loose at end of DVD

environmental factors

Biggest contributors to increased weight gain

1) changed in food acailability
2) changed in physical activity

2 key factors in environmental ****:

2700 cal

Americans consume on average ___ calories per day


Weight is gained when more energy is consumed than ___

3 decades

Obesity has increased heavily in the past how many decades?

Premature death
heart disease
- diabetes melitus (type 2 for fatties)
- cancer
- arthritis
- quality of life issues
- Cost

Health risks associated with being obese are:

- behavioral therepy
- diet therepy
- physical activity
- social support
- surgical procedures
- pharmacotherepy

Characterists of successful weight loss are:

behavioral changes

Willing ness to make life long ___ rather than "dieting" will lead to sucessful weight loss

diet therepy

Therepy that targets food choices

Protein and fiber

Food linked wtih high satisfaction

35-40 BMI

Gasric bypass is an option for those with bmi of ?


gastric bypass can reduce weight by

- infection
- longterm nutrtional deficiencies (vit b12, iron, fat soluable vitamins, calcium)
- expensice

Gastric bypass risks are

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