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Nutrition 100 ex 2

PSU Nutr 100 Exam 2
STUDY
PLAY
Flavor and Tenderness
Palatability
Concentrated energy source
Why we eat fatty foods...
<10% Kcal
Limiting fat intake to ____ will cause deficencies
Phytochemicals
Vitamins A D E & K
Essential fatty acids (Omega 3 & 6)
Limiting Fat will make us deficient in
Regulates Temperature,
Provides Insulation
Cushions & Protects Organs
Body fat helps us...
- Absorbed longer than protein or CHO
- Provides the sensation of being full
When dietary fat is consumed in the body it:
Cardiovascular disease
~40% of Americans have a form of?
- Coronary Heart Disease
- High BP
- Stroke
Types of cardiovascular diseases
Coronary Heart Disease
CHD stands for
Atherosclerosis
Primary cause for reduced blood flow in heart
Plaque to form along the vessels making them narrow
Injury to blood vessels causes...
Cholesterol
Builds up in blood vessels blocking blood flow
1) High total blood cholesterol
2) High LDL
3) High blood pressure
BLOOD RELATED factors that cause injury to blood vessels
1) Smoking
2) obesity
3) Diet
4) Chronic stress
LIFE STYLE FACTORS that cause injury to blood vessels
- Uncontrolled diabetes
- Genetics
Other causes of injury to blood vessels
Athero
= Blood vessels in the heart
Sclerosis
Hardening
- aging
-gender
- genetics
- diabetes
Uncontrollable factors related to heart diease
Controllable factors related to heart disease
- uncontrolled diabetes
- High blood pressure
- smoking
- Phsyical activity
- Excess weight
- Low HDL
- High LDL
- Excessive alcohol consumption
- Dietary factors
Lipoproteins
cholesterol in the blood is carried in packages called
1) Triglicerides
2) Phospholipids
3) Steroids
The three types of lipids
> 200 mg/dl
Total cholesterol levels greater than _____ are associated with CHD death rate
98%
Trigs make up ___ % of fats in foods
Triglycerides
Glycerol + 3 fatty acids = ?
Omega 6 Fatty Acids
Located in cell membranes, nerves, & brain
- Increases blood clotting factors, can lead to high blood pressure (HBP)
- Healthy skin, normal functioning of reproductive system and CNS
Omega 3 Fatty Acids
Located in cell membranes and the eye
- Reduce blood clotting factors, improves HBP
- Important component of the brain and nervous system
Current Concern: Intake too low, ratio with omega 6 intake is off
EPA & DHA
Two types of Fatty Acids:
Decreases -->Blood Clotting, blood pressure, fat forming in arteries
Needed: Brain development & hand eye coordination
Sterols
Have a unique ring structure
Cholesterol
Found in every body cell
Needed to make: Bile acids (lipid digestion), Vit D, Testosterone & Estrogen (reproductive hormones)
Limited to 20-35% Total K cal
Dietary fats are needed but limited to _____
9 Kcal
The number of Kcals in each gram of fat
67 grams of fat
Grams of fat recommended for a standard 2000 Kcal diet
Saturated and Trans Fats
2 types of not so good fats, should be decreased whenever possible
<10% Kcal
Your diet should have ___ % of saturated fatty acids
MUFA & PUFA
Monounsaturated & Polyunsaturated fats: Choose these over saturated fats
Coronary Heard Disease (CHD)
Dietary recommendations for reducing fat are based on the risk of ____
Limit Saturated Fats by
- eat smaller portions
- dressing on the side
- substitute w/ lower fat foods
- cut the amount added into making foods
- Watch label for added sugars
- eat fruit, share w friends
- Limit fried foods and lardy foods
>4.5G SFA
High fat meats have ___G SFA in them
<4.5G SFA
Lean sources of meats have ____g's of SFA in them
Alternative pro0tein sources
Beans, nuts, soy products are:
Saturated fat reduction Strategies
- deacrease dressings
- choose lower sat fat foods
Low Fat
Must have 3 grams or less of fat
Fat Free
Less than .05grams of fat
Low cholesterol
contain 20 mg or less of cholesterol
SFA - sat fat
MUFA - mono unsat
PUFA - Poly unsat
Three types of Fatty acids used to make triglycerides and phospholipids
Low sat fat
contain less than 1 gram of sat fat per serving
MUFAS
Examples of sources: olive oil, canola opil, peanut oil, nuts
- decrease total cholesterol& LDL (*No effect on HDL)
- deacrease blood clotting factors, decr. BP, provide antioxidants
PUFAS
Sources include: corn oil, soybean oil, walnuts, flax seed, vegetable oil, fatty fish
Mufas and PUfas
Decrease blood trigs
Prevent blood clots
Lower BP
Protect against irregular heart beats
lower inflamation
>3g Omega 3 Fatty acids
Avoid getting over ___ g's of omega 3 FA
Hydrogenation
process of filling unsaturated fatty acids with hydroden to make it saturated
Trans-fats
naturally occuring in some animal foods are formed during a commercial manufacturing process called "hydrogenation"
Trans -fats
Were once thought to be good for us:
They raise LDL, lower HDL
A label claiming to be ___ free can have up to 0.5g in it
Protein functions
Building blocks for growth of muscle / bone
repair damaged cells
can be enzymes
- speeds up breakdown of reactions
can be hormones
Form antibodies
Maintain acid & base balance
maintains fluid and electrolyte balance
PH is acidic
Protein in our body will denature and can result in coma or death if PH gets too ___
amino acids
building blocks of protein
9 essential
There are __ essential amino acids
11 non essential
There are __ non essentionlamino acids
10-35%
AMDR of protein is:
0.8g per kg body weight
Sedentary adult protein needs
1.2 to 1.4g per kg BW
Protein needs for endurance atheletes
1.6 to q.7g per kg bw
Protein needs for strength/power atletes
Fruits and fats
Types of foods that dont haev any protein
Sedentary 41G, Actual 61g
RDA 135LB female for protein is
Sedentary - 64G, Actual 80G
RDA protein for 175Lb Male
6oz grains = 18g protein
2.5c veggies = 10g protein
3c milk = 24g pro
5.5 oz meat = 38 g pro
Tot = 90g FOR 2000 CALORIES
USDA Guidelines for a 2000 kcal diet for protein follow:
8-10oz grains = 24-30g pro
3-4c veggies = 12-16g pro
3c milk = 24 g pro
6.5-7oz meat & beans = 45-49 G protein
TOT = 105-119g FOR 2400 - 3000 CAL DIET
USDA Food guide for atheletes 2400 CAL 3000 Cal diet follow
Endurance females = 86 g pro
Power females = 104 g pro
A 135lb female athelte would get this much protein:
Endurance males = 111g
Power males = 135 g protein
RDA for a 175lb athletic guy protein from USDA food guielines are:
Complete protein
Protein that contains all 9 essential amino acids
Incomplete proteins
Proteins that lack atleast 1 of the essemtial amino acids
> 35% total kcal
> 2g/kg body weight
Too much protein
in those with already compromised kidney function
Too much protein wont cause kidney failure but will:
~40% - 50% total Kcal protein
Atkins diet - short term success
20-30% total kcal
Moderate protein intake:
-help with weight loss and maintainance
-may help regulare blood sugars when protein replaces refined carbohydrates and sugars
Protein energy malnutrition (PEM)
A deficiency of protein or both protein and energy
Marasmus
PEM - for adults
protein & energy
severe weight loss
Kwashiorkor
PEM - Childeren 1-3 in age
Protein only
Enlarged liver
some wt loss
Fat cells never go away
In the film we are told fat cells ___
100 lbs
With gastric band the doctor believed that rocky could loose ___ lbs
5%
Percentage of individuals who get gastric bypass who get to a normal weight
- Nervous system surrounding the gut determines when and how much we should eat
The role of the gut in weight regulation :
147lbs
How much weight did rocky loose at end of DVD
environmental factors
Biggest contributors to increased weight gain
1) changed in food acailability
2) changed in physical activity
2 key factors in environmental ****:
2700 cal
Americans consume on average ___ calories per day
expended
Weight is gained when more energy is consumed than ___
3 decades
Obesity has increased heavily in the past how many decades?
Premature death
heart disease
- diabetes melitus (type 2 for fatties)
- cancer
- arthritis
- quality of life issues
- Cost
Health risks associated with being obese are:
- behavioral therepy
- diet therepy
- physical activity
- social support
- surgical procedures
- pharmacotherepy
Characterists of successful weight loss are:
behavioral changes
Willing ness to make life long ___ rather than "dieting" will lead to sucessful weight loss
diet therepy
Therepy that targets food choices
Protein and fiber
Food linked wtih high satisfaction
35-40 BMI
Gasric bypass is an option for those with bmi of ?
30-60%
gastric bypass can reduce weight by
- infection
- longterm nutrtional deficiencies (vit b12, iron, fat soluable vitamins, calcium)
- expensice
Gastric bypass risks are