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Anthropology 1001 Tague LSU Exam 2
Terms in this set (158)
interaction b/w natural selection and mutation
multiple alleles of a gene at relatively high frequencies within a pop/species
polymorphism is due to _______________, acting on ______________, caused by __________________.
natural selection, genetic variation, mutation
in polymorphism, a new allele has to provide a natural selective advantage to _______________ meaningfully in a population.
New alleles are formed by _______________________
more than 2 alleles exist for a gene
at least 2 have a frequency of >1%
balanced polymorphism is due to ______________________ having higher fitness (higher natural selective advantage) than _______________________.
example of balanced polymorphism
sickle cell trait
sickle cell hemoglobin is caused by ____________________ affecting one amino acid in a beta chain
one point mutation
caused by parasite transmitted between individuals by mosquito
Heterozygotes for sickle cell have _____ rate of malarial infection compared to homozygotes for "normal" hemoglobin
Bergman's rule states that body mass is ___________ in areas with _______________ temperatures
Why heterozygotes for sickle cell allele have an advantage
selective destruction of red blood cells, conjointly supply oxygen to tissues and suppress parasites
Heterozygotes for sickle cell allele have an advantage only in
alleles for both "normal" and sickle cell hemoglobin are maintained at high frequencies this is
individuals are phenotypically normal and can survive
enzyme that allows you to digest lactose, which is sugar in milk
insufficiency in lactase
phenotypically different populations in a species.
is a result of diversity of environments that we inhibit
not a biologically useful grouping of humans.
two problems with the concept of race
1. failure to understand genetic basis for phenotypes 2. researchers differ in identification of the number of races , more variation within a race than between
result of natural selection
· any beneficial modification that relieves environmental stress and enhances survival of individuals
Human variation perspective
types of adaptation 4
behavior, short-term, developmental, genetic
· physiology and anatomical adjustments to the environment that occur during an individual's life
melanin is produced in
melanin is packaged into granules called _______.
____ function is to block ultraviolet radiation from penetrating skin and damaging DNA
· Body mass is higher in areas with lower temperatures
Allen's Rule states that arms/legs are ______________ in areas with _______________ temperatures
x^3 / x^2 : :
mass / surface area
populations living in _______________ (high/low) temperature environments show a HIGHER basal metabolic rate
a high basal metabolic rate is the efficient cycling of ____________________ & ______________________
one with a high basal metabolic rate has a __________________ (higher/lower) temp of their ________________________.
higher, fingers and toes
populations living in _______________ (high/low) temperature environments have a lower basal metabolic rate
low temperature environment = ____________________ adaptation
high temperature environment = ___________________ adaptation
adaptations to low temp environments by body shape, metabolism, and blood flow are examples of ______________________.
the adaptation to high altitude is ____________________
hyperventilation, increase in red blood cell production, increase is 2,3-DPG, and increase in # of blood vessels are all examples of ________________________
reversible short-term acclimatizations
function: increase in concentration difference of )2 b/w lungs and blood
function: increase # of "vehicles" for picking up and carrying O2
increase in red blood cell production
function: releases O2 from hemoglobin, thereby maintaining concentration gradient for diffusion of O2 from blood to cells
function: increase surface area for diffusion of O2 from blood to cells
increase in number of blood vessels
increase in lung capacity, enlargement of heart, and increase in chest circumference due to high altitude are all examples of ______________________________.
Behavioral, short-term acclimation, developmental (irreversible) acclimation, and genetic(result of natural selection) are all examples of ____________________________________.
determination of relationships among groups of organisms
classification of organisms
who devised taxonomic scheme?
List the categories of taxonomy in order
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
list the taxa for humans
animalia, chordata, mammalia, primates, hominides, homo, sapiens
Linnaeus used ___________ ________________ to reference species
proper way to write genus and species (write out "genus species" assuming it is written in italics)
Linnaeus considered each group (i.e., taxon) of organisms to have an "________________"
set of traits unique to a group of organisms; it is fixed (cannot change)
organisms in the same _________________ share the same suite of traits
if two or more species have the same traits in common, they may be classified in same ___________________
if two or more genus have the same traits in common, they may be classified in same ___________________
to Linnaeus, there is no _____________ ______________ among taxonomic categories
Modern biologists consider species category to be ___________________ than other taxonomic categories
a species is a real group of organisms able to ____________________ with each other. (modern biologist view)
Species is a unit of ________________________. (modern biologist view)
to modern biologists, higher taxonomic categories are _________________ __________________ that provide structure to diversity of species.
how did Linnaeus use taxonomy
to illustrate the order in nature fashioned by the creator
evolutionary lines of descent, ancestor decent
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END OF QUIZ 1
what are the two suborders of primates?
strepsirhini and haplorhini
The two infraorders of haplorhini are tarsilformes and ________________.
The _______________________ superfamily belongs to the catarrhini parrorder.
The hylobatidae and _____________________ families belong to the hominoidia superfamily
early primates were adapting to life in the trees.
1. early primates were predators of insects. Swiped to catch insects and grasped branch with feet. Had to judge distance between hands and mouth to put the food in their mouth.
how to calculate dental formula
maxillary teeth/mandibular teeth
dental formula only shows ______________ of dentition
insectivory diets means an animal eats ______________
frugivory diet means an animal eats ________________
folivory diet means an animal eats __________________
omnivory diet means an animal eats ___________________
leaping, quadrupedalism, arm-swinging/brachiation, bipedalism are all forms of _______________________.
noyau adults dispersed and do not form a social group. The territory of one male overlaps the territories of several females. Single male and multiple males polygyny there are social groups of males and females
what is the genus of chimpanzees?
what are the two species of chimpanzee?
Pan _____________________ & Pan _______________________
found in Central and Western Africa
main diet of chimpanzees
chimps and gorillas
-arms longer than legs
-more mobile/flexible wrist
-"stiff back" (fewer lumbar vertebrae)
-dental formula (2,1,2,3/2,1,2,3)
-Y-5 cusp pattern on lower molars
which primate has...
dental formula: 2,1,2,3/2,1,2,3
Y-5 cusp on lower molars
-hunts smaller mammals
mating patterns: "promiscuity" or short-term pairbonding
-males remain in troop while females emigrate
-MALES ARE TERRITORIAL
male __________________ are territorial and will attack males from other troops
____________________________ are models for understanding earliest human ancestors
populations differ in tools and behavior is evidence that chimps have _______________________.
-2 instances of tool use
Orangutans are from the _______________ genus
_________________________ are slow, cautious climbers in trees
some small-bodies new world monkeys species have a __________________________ social organization
female new world monkeys have a _________ body size and give birth to _____________
new world monkey mothers use multiple males to carry her twins so she can still ____________ and ______________________.
forage, avoid predators
Several new world monkey males assist in offspring care because they are _______________________ about paternity
-small-bodied (<1 lb)
-found in Southeast Asia
tarsiers, lemurs, lorises are all ______________-bodied primates
tarsier, lorises, and lemurs get protein from their _______________ diets
large-bodied primates get protein from ____________
-very large eyes
-legs longer than arms
-non-prehensile tail (not able to hold objects w tail)
-dry, hairy area around nose
morphologies of tarsiers (tarsiers)
-nocturnal (large eyes associated w nocturnality)
-social organization: noyau (monogamy)
behavior of tarsiers (tarsiers)
only primate found in Madagascar
found in Africa and Southeast Asia
locomotion of lemurs and lorises
leapers (leaping, slow cautious climbing)
Leaping allows small-bodies primates (such as lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers) to cross gaps in _______________ ____________.
-moist, hairless area around nose
smaller brains than tarsiers & anthropoids
-dental formula: 2,1,3,3/2,1,3,3
-dental comb (tooth comb)
morphologies of lemurs and lorises (lemurs and lorises)
sleeping pattern of lemurs and lorises
-only occurs in lemurs and lorises
-bunched lower canines and incisors
unique dental formula of Daubentonia madegascaensis (aye-aye)
Daubentonia madegascaensis (aye-aye) have a unique ____________ anatomy
sickle cell and malaria are both located across what continent?
________________________ for sickle cell have lower rate of malarial infection compared to _________________________ for "normal" hemoglobins
heterozygotes have selectiove _____________ of red blood cells with the sickle-cell allele
_______________________ red blood cells sickle and kill malaria parasites
heterozygotes of sickle cell allele can _________________________ and supply oxygen to tissues and _____________________ malarian parasitic proliferation
malaria and sickle-cell are an example of ___________________ because alleles for both normal and sickle cell hemoglobin are maintained at high frequencies
spread of _______________________ agriculture is related to natural selective advantage of sickle cell allele
(agricultural practices->mosquito spread->human malaria-> spread of sickle cell mutation)
slash and burn
thalassemia and G-6-PD deficiency are other examples of
red blood cell polymorphisms
natural selection is _________________
natural selection acts on the ___________________/_______________ variability
interaction of natural selection and mutation means that populations may show different _____________________ to the same environmental ___________________
sickle cell and lactose sufficiency are both examples of ______________________
human biocultural adaptation
human species is ______________________
humans have _________________________ different populations within the species
human diversity is a result of diversity in environments; populations diversify phenotypically and genetically because of ______________________.
melanin is produced in the ___________________ of the skin
________________ skin pigmentation is adaptive in areas of intense UV radiation and reduces likelihood of cancer
_______________ skin pigmentation is adaptive in areas with low UV radiation and allows sufficient synthesis of vitamin D and reduces likelihood of rickets
evolutionary lines of descent; ancestor-descendant relationship
There are more species of ______ than of any other group of primates.
-prehensile hands and feet (grasping)
-nails (not claws)
-increased reliance on vision
-decreased reliance on smell (short snout)
-post orbital bar
-inc in size of brain
-birth 1-2 offspring
-long juvenile development
primate with single-male polygamy
both males and female _______________ emigrate from groups
primate found in Indonesia
prominanet sagital crest (big head)
genus of gibbons
locomotion of gibbons
brachiation (swinging in trees)
-no tool use
found in Africa and Asia
old world monkeys
-equal arms and legs
-less mobile wrist
-more lumbar vertebrae
-bilophodont cusp at 4 corners of molars
old world mokeys
____________________ monkeys have polygynous social organization; sexual dimorphismin canine tooth and body size
__________________________________ emerges in polygynous species bc males compete for rank in dominance
_______________________ monkeys are quadrupedal
diet is omnivorous and some baboons eat small prey
-anatomical specialization: enlarged, complex stomach to digest leaves
-mult male polygyny
-females stay, males emigrate
-occasionally eats small animals
-model for early hominin social behavior
-single male polygyny
-females stay, males emigrate
-diet: seeds, grasses, roots
-similar dental anatomies to early hominins
-model of early human behavior
-anatomy: enlargd stomach for folivorous diet
-practiced by males
-male takes over troop
-new males attempt to kill nursing infants
-this means adult females can no longer lactate and resume ovulation
-new male can impregnate females to own offspring
__________________ monkeys have 3 premolar teeth in each quadrant
__________________ monkeys have broad nose
all ________________ monkeys are diurnal (one exception)
new world monkey locomotion
quadrupedalism / arm-swinging
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