• Prenatal conditions such as maternal drug use (alcohol) and maternal infection (rubella)
• Perinatal conditions such as abnormally long labor, precipitated or uncontrolled labor, abnormal presentation of the infant, and any condition that could cause brain injury.
• Neonatal conditions such as premature birth, low or high birthweight, poor feeding, infection of the newborn, and the presence of physical and sensory abnormalities.
• Presence of many genetic syndromes. Family history of language disorders.
• Environmental factors, including poverty, social environment, and child abuse.
• Prelinguistic communication deficits, which include avoidance of eye contact, little or no babbling, frequent crying, litter interest in gestures, and showing little or no emotion.
• Failure to respond when asked to point to body parts
• Failure to follow such simple instructions such as "go get your shoes"
• Delayed production of first words
• Lack of social smile and lack of interest in social play
• Reduced use of gestures or conversely, communicating only through gestures.
• Impaired learning of speech sounds.
o Coma or loss of consciousness
o Confusion or post-traumatic amnesia
o Abnormal behaviors, including aggression, anxiety, irritability, hyperactivity, lethargy, and withdrawal.
o Motor dysfunctions, including tremors, rigidity, spasticity, ataxia, and apraxia.
o Serious prenatal and natal complications including low birth weight, child being small for gestational age, and anoxia
o Early signs of behavior disorders
o Child's tendency toward frequent and unusual accidents
o Chronic otitis media
o Family history of predisposing genetic or medical conditions
o Chronic or severe physical illness, mental illness, or intellectual disabilities in the primary caregiver or one or both parents.
o Serious questions raised by a professional, a parent, or a caregiver about the child's development
o Chronically dysfunctional interaction between members of the family
o Caregiver or parental substance abuse
o Parental education below 9th grade, unemployment, or welfare dependency
o Isolation of the child or separation of the child from the primary caregiver
o Unstable or dangerous living conditions
o Lack of health insurance, poor family health care, inadequate prenatal care.
o let the child act out the stories
o use scripts based on such events as grocery shopping, birthday parties, etc. Have the children play out the scripts, including verbal exchanges.
o Use video modeling, in which videotaped interactions between two or more children with normal language skills are shown. Have the child who needs to learn those skills watch and then imitate the actions, including verbal interactions, fade the video modeling.
o Use peer training method to teach advanced language skills. Let the child's peer model reinforce language skills in the child.
o Get children involved in routinized daily activities.
o Repeatedly tell or read the same stories so that children memorize the characters, events, words, and sequence.
o Ask children to tell stories or narrate events with and then without the help of pictures, scripts, or both.
o Ask the child to narrate new events or experiences.
o Use such effective procedures as instructions, modeling, prompting, positive reinforcement, corrective feedback.