Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Pharmacology Lecture 4
Terms in this set (66)
List normal airway defense mechanisms
- mucocilliary apparatus
- immune system (aleveolar macrophages)
List types of respiratory drugs
Retching/gagging cough is characterised by
- larynx/pharynx stimulated by pressure
- stimulated vagus nerve
Deep/forceful cough is characterised by
- chemical/mechanical stimulation in lower trachea and bronchi
Deep/forceful coughs are usually caused by
Antitussive drugs are used to
prevent or relieve coughs
Productive cough characteristics
- has mucus
- should not be blocked
nonproductive cough characteristics
- no mucus
- dry and hacking
- seen at onset of infection
what can nonproductive cough progress to
List examples of Antitussive drugs
- Hydrocodone (Hycodan/Tussigion)
Antitussive drug mechanism of action
- opioid mu receptor agonists
Antitussives shouldn't be used with which type of coughs?
Antitussives adverse effects
- respiratory depression
Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst) is an example of what type of drug
Which drug is used an antidote for acetaminophen toxicity
Acetylcysteine mechanism of action
break up/reduce mucus viscosity by breaking bonds
In aerosolised form, Acetyclycsteine is often administered by _______-
Guaifenesin (flyceryl guaiacolate) mechanism of action
increase fluidity of mucus to allow coughing
What is an ecxample of an expectorant drug
Guaifenesin (flyceryl guaiacolate)
What is Guaifenesin more commonly used for?
muscle relaxant in equine anaesthetic protocols
Decongestants drug examples
Are Pseudoephedrine and Phenylephrine commonly used in veterinary medicine?
Pseudoephedrine, Phenylephrine mechanism of action
- alpha 1 receptor stimulation causes vascular engorgement of swollen nasal tissues (reduces congestion)
Pseudoephedrine, Phenylephrine also stimulate B1 receptors which results into what side effect?
What does Bronchoconstriction cause?
- Parasympathetic stimulation (Ach)
- Drugs or poisons that mimic Ach
- inhibit acetylcholinesterase
2 Bronchodilator categories
- B2-adrenergic agonists
- Methylxanthine bronchodilators
2 types of B-adrenergic agonists
selective and nonselective
Examples of B2-Agonists (selective)
Examples of B-Agonists (nonselective)
B2-Agonists (selective) characteristics
- bronchodilation + mast cell stabilization
- long lastung
- can be given via metered-dose inhaler (MDI)
B-Agonists (nonselective) characteristics
- stimulate B1 and B2 receptors
- cause bronchodilation + increase HR/FOC
negative side effect in using B2-Agonists (nonselective) drugs
can be detrimental to heart patients
Methylxanthines drug examples
Methylxanthines mechanism of action
inhibit phosphodiesterase action
Which Methylxanthines drug is banned in racehorses?
What is Aminophylline composed of?
theophylline and 20%
What does Theophylline treat?
RAO (Recurrent Airway Disease) in horses
Can theophylline be used in dogs?
Does Theophylline have a narrow or wide therapeutic index in horses?
What are some Theophylline toxic side effects?
Nervous system stimulation
Why use respiratory antimicrobials?
- to determine causative agent prior to use in resp dz
- dx method
- issues + considerations in tx resp dz
When is Corticosteroids indicated?
when inflammation is more threatening than temporary immune response suppression
Corticosteroids mechanism of action in resp dz
- stabilize histamine containing mast cells
- decrease inflammatory mediator release
Corticosteroids are commonly used to tx
- allergic resp dz (asthma)
- inflammation secondary to inhalation of caustic fumes/smoke
prevent allergic bronchoconstriction if drug anatogonise H1 receptor on bronchioles smooth muscles before histamine gets there
remove fluid in lungs with edema from CHF or electrocution
Side effect of diuretic
significant drying in resp tract
Emergency drugs for arrests
Emergency drug for antiarrythmics
Emergency drugs for Reversals
List other miscellaneous emergency drugs
- low and high dose options
-Coronary and cerebral
-Renal tubular resorption of
Vasopressin and Epinephrine administration routes
Atrophine mechanism of action
- Increases heart rate
Why use Atropine in arrest?
increased vagal tone is believed to decrease heart's automatic response
Class 1 antiarrhythmic
When is Calcium Gluconate often used in emergency?
- for hypocalcemia or severe hyperkalemia
- blocked cats
- canine eclampsia
When is Sodium Bicarbonate often used in emergency?
severe metabolic acidemia (post-arrest)
Lidocaine Mechanism of action?
Na blocker - delay depolarization
What should we be cautious about when using Lidocaine?
cats - can cause toxicity if overused
Amiodarone mechanism of action?
- delay repolarization
- block potassium channel
Which drug can outperform Lidocaine in case of VF?
Amiodarone side effects
Sets found in the same folder
Pharmacology Lecture 1
Pharmacology Lecture 5.1
Pharmacology Lecture 3
Other sets by this creator
VN2 Final Dental Tools
Pharmacology Lecture 8
Other Quizlet sets
Intro to Econ Vocab
Chapters 2, 3, 4
Russick — Chapters 8 and 9