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40 terms

articulations and body movements

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cartilaginous
typically allows a slight degree of movement
cartilaginous
includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis
fibrous
essentially immovable joints
fibrous
sutures are the most remembered examples
cartilaginous
characterized by cartilage connecting the bony portions
synovial
all characterized by a fibrous articular capsule lined with a synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity
synovial
all are freely movable or diarthrotic
fibrous
bone regions are united by fibrous connective tissue
synovial
include the hip, knee, and elbow joints
ligament
dense fibrous connective tissue, attaches bones together, reinforces joints
tendon
dense fibrous connective tissue attaching tendon to bone, reinforces the joint capsule as it spans a joint
articular cartilage
hyaline cartilage, reduces friction where bones articulate
synovial membrane
loose connective tissue, produces synovial fluid which decreases friction within the joint capsule
bursa
fluid-filled synovial sac which cushions the tendon where it crosses the bone
pivot
joint between the axis and atlas
ball and socket
hip joint
gliding
intervertebral joints( between articular processes)
condyloid
joint between forearm bones and wrist
hinge
elbow and interphalangeal joints
gliding
intercarpal joints
hinge
joint between tarsus and tibia/fibula
condyloid
joint between skull and vertebral column
hinge
joint between jaw and skull
condyloid
joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones
ball and socket
a multiaxial joint
condyloid or saddle
biaxial joints
hinge or pivot
uniaxial joints
one joint
uniaxial
two joints
biaxial
three joints
multiaxial
what characteristics do all joints have in common?
all consist of bony regions separated by fibrous or cartilaginous connective tissue
which joint, the hip or knee is more stable
hip
name 2 important factors that contribute to stability of hip joint
deep socket for femur
strongly reinforced articular capsule
name 2 important factors that contribute to stability of knee
menisci
ligaments and tendons crossing joint
factors which contribute to large range of motion of shoulder
-large head of humerus moves easily against shallow glenoid cavity of scapula
-glenoid labrum only slightly deepens glenoid cavity
-articular capsule is thin and loose
-few ligaments that strengthen joint
which direction does shoulder dislocate?
humerus usually dislocates in forward and downward direction
what structural joint changes are common to elderly?
degenerative changes
sprain
ligaments reinforcing a joint are damaged by excessive stretching, or torn away from bony attachment
dislocation
bones are forced out of their normal positions in a joint cavity
what types of tissue damage might you expect in a dislocated joint?
torn or stressed ligaments and inflammation
joint capsule and ligaments remain stretched