dense fibrous connective tissue attaching tendon to bone, reinforces the joint capsule as it spans a joint
hyaline cartilage, reduces friction where bones articulate
loose connective tissue, produces synovial fluid which decreases friction within the joint capsule
fluid-filled synovial sac which cushions the tendon where it crosses the bone
joint between the axis and atlas
ball and socket
intervertebral joints( between articular processes)
joint between forearm bones and wrist
elbow and interphalangeal joints
joint between tarsus and tibia/fibula
joint between skull and vertebral column
joint between jaw and skull
joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones
ball and socket
a multiaxial joint
condyloid or saddle
hinge or pivot
what characteristics do all joints have in common?
all consist of bony regions separated by fibrous or cartilaginous connective tissue
which joint, the hip or knee is more stable
name 2 important factors that contribute to stability of hip joint
deep socket for femur strongly reinforced articular capsule
name 2 important factors that contribute to stability of knee
menisci ligaments and tendons crossing joint
factors which contribute to large range of motion of shoulder
-large head of humerus moves easily against shallow glenoid cavity of scapula -glenoid labrum only slightly deepens glenoid cavity -articular capsule is thin and loose -few ligaments that strengthen joint
which direction does shoulder dislocate?
humerus usually dislocates in forward and downward direction
what structural joint changes are common to elderly?
ligaments reinforcing a joint are damaged by excessive stretching, or torn away from bony attachment
bones are forced out of their normal positions in a joint cavity
what types of tissue damage might you expect in a dislocated joint?
torn or stressed ligaments and inflammation joint capsule and ligaments remain stretched