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34 terms

histology of nervous tissue

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major function of neuron
generate and transmit nerve impulses
neuron
basic functional unit of nervous system
4 types of neuroglia in the CNS
microglia, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells
microglia function
phagocytosis of debris ( dead cells, bacteria, etc)
oligodendrocytes function
myelinate neuron processes in the CNS thus forming myelin sheath
astrocytes function
support the neurons, may serve nutritive function and help regulate the chemical environment of neurons
ependymal cells function
line cavities of brain and spinal cord, aid in circulation of cerebrospinal fluid
PNS glial cell that forms myelin
schwann cell
PNS glial cell that surrounds neuron cell bodies in ganglia
satellite cell
central nervous system
braina and spinal cord collectively
neuroglia
specialized supporting cells in CNS
synapse
junction or point of close contact between neurons
tract
a bundle of nerve processes inside the CNS
association neuron
neuron serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons
peripheral nervous system
ganglia and spinal and cranial nerves
ganglion
collection of nerve cell bodies found outside the CNS
efferent neuron
neuron that conducts impulses away from the CNS to muscles and glands
afferent neuron
neuron that conducts impulses toward the CNS from the body periphery
neurotransmitters
chemicals released by neurons that stimulate or inhibit other neurons or effectors
axon hillock
region of the cell body from which the axon originates
axon terminal
secretes neurotransmitters
dendrite
receptive region fo a neuron
myelin sheath
insulates the nerve fibers
neuroanal cell body
site of the nucleus and is the most important metabolic area
neurofibril
may be involved in transport of substances within the neuron
nissl bodies
essentially rough endoplasmic reticulum, important metabolically
axon
impulse generator and transmitter
what substance found in synaptic vesicels of axon terminal
neurotransmitter
what role does neuorotransmitters play in neurotransmission
carries electrical impulse from one neuron to the next
what anatomical characteristic determines whether a neuron is unipolar, bipolar, mutipolar
number of processes issuing from cell body
nerve
-bundle of neuron processes wrapped in connective tissue wrappings
-extends from CNS to structures of body viscera or periphery
endoneurium location
surrounds the neuron process
perineum location
surrounds a bundle of neuron processes
epineurium location
surrounds all of the neuron processes contributing to a nerve