Anatomy Online Exam 2

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Where does gas exchange occur
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Terms in this set (53)
what separates the nasal cavity from the oral cavitypalate -anterior hard palate -posterior soft palatesoft palatevelum grows with age --> snoringparanasal sinuscavities within bones are called sinuses -they lighten skull -act as resonance chambers for speech -produce mucus that drains into nasal cavitywhat bones are sinuses located infrontal bone sphenoid bone ethmoid bone maxillary bonepharynxmuscular passage from nasal cavity to larynx3 regions of pharynxnasopharynx (behind nasal), oropharynx (behind mouth), laryngopharynx (inferior region attached to larynx)what are the common passageways for food and airoropharynx and laryngopharynx design flawlarynxvoice box, routes air and food into the proper channels and plays a role in speechepigolottisA flap of tissue that seals off the windpipe and prevents food from entering.structures of the larynxthyroid cartilage (adams apple) epiglottis (routes food/air) vocal cords (speech) glottis (opening between vocal cords)tracheaThe windpipe; a passage through which air moves in the respiratory system. -tube that connects larynx to bronchi -lined with ciliated mucosa (traps particles)Bronchial tree divisionsAll but the smallest of these passageways have reinforcing cartilage in their walls -Primary bronchi -Secondary bronchi -Tertiary bronchi -Bronchioles -Terminal bronchioleswhat covers the lung surfacePulmonary (visceral) pleuraWhat lines the walls of the thoracic cavity?parietal pleurawhat us the fluid between the layers of the pleurapleural fluid helps reduce frictionwhat portion of the thoracic cavity does the heart occupymediastinumHow many lobes does the right lung have?3 lobes left has 2How many alveoli are in each lung?300 millionratio of capillaries to alveoliequaltype 1 alveolar cellspneumocytes make up wall of alveoli single layer alveolar cellstype 2 alveolar cellssecrete surfactantrespiratory membraneair-blood barrier; composed of alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basal laminas ? ?Why is the diffusion between the alveoli and blood rapidsmall diffusion barrier moist large surface areawhy does presence of water lead to surface tension in alveolielectronegative oxygen and partial positive hydrogen attraction --> hydrogen bondssurfactantamphiphilic interferes with H bonding secreted by type 2 alveolar cells reduces surface tension of a liquidwhy is it hard to breathe on humid daysyou dont make enough surfactantcomplianceease with which lung tissue can be stretchedlung comliancemeasure of lung distensibility, inversely related to elasticitywhy cant premature babies breathethey dont produce surfactant until 28 weekshard to inspire, easy to expire, decreased compliancetuberculosis, too elastic because of scar tissueeasy to expire, hard to expire, decreased complianceemphysema, not elastic enough because of tissue breaking downsurface tension on a humid daygreater tension, less complianceaging effects on respiratory system- Decreased vital capacity and flexibility -blood oxygen levels decrease -stimulating factors of co2 decrease -elders are often hypoxic --> sleep apnea - Increased airway resistance - Increased risk of respiratory infectionwhat do you call normal respiratory breathing amount (mL)Tidal volume approx 500ml in/out with each breathfactors that affect respitory capacityage persons size sex physical conditionthe amount of air that can be taken in forciblyinspiratory reserve volume usually between 2100-3200 mlamount of air that can be forcibly exhaledexpiratory reserve volume approx 1200mlresidual amount of airair remaining after expiration about 1200mlvital capacityTV +IRV + ERV total amount of exchangeable airfunctional volumeair that actually reaches the respiratory zone about 300 mldead space volumeair that remains in conducting zone and never reaches alveoli 150 mlinspiration (what physically happens)inhalation chest wall and lungs expand internal intercostals and diaphragm contractexpiration (what happens physically)exhalation mostly passive process external intercostals and diaphragm relax (passive doesnt require musculature) forced expiration--> internal intercostals + abdominals contract