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44 terms

Chap 6 intro to speech

STUDY
PLAY
Longitudinal method
a small number of children are predeatedly observed for month or years.
cross sectional method
many subjects are selected from different age levels and are studied simultaneously for arelatively brief duration.
preverbal behavior
thos behaviors that preced the production of words and phrases
syntax
arranging words in proper order to form meaningful sentences.
contexts
the situation on which an utterance is producd usually provides a clue to the meaning
telegraphic speech
speech that does not include reuired grammatical features
free morphemes
can stand alone and convey meaning
grammatical morpheme
most of them cannot convey much meaning when produced in isolation although in context they modulate (change) meaning.
present progressive
ing is a grammatical morpheme,and its isolated productionn make no sense.
bound morpheme
other grammatical mophemes include inflection of english language: adding ed to a word to indicate past tense; adding 's to a word to indicate possesion.
mean length of utterance (MLU)
the average length of a child's multiple utterances; the length is measured in tems of morphemes.both bound and free.
negation
before he or she can produce a completenegative sentence the child negates something by saying a single word: "NO"
function
rouchly the same as purposes or intentions in the linguistic view, and they are nothing other than effects of speech on others.
instrumental function
speech that serves th purpose of gettin various kinds of help from others (ex: i want it)
regulatory function
control other people's behavior (ex: stop it)
turn taking
tur taking implies thathtere is a time to talk and there is a time to listen
topic maintenace
continued conversation on the same topic for socially acceptable durations
later language acquision
language learning in older children, including adolescents
conversations
dialogue though not limited to two individuals
narrations
monoluge
innate
that it is already present when the chil is born
Language acquisition device (LAD)
children are born with an innate mechanism of language aquisiton. LAD integrates the universal and the unique aspects of the language and thus helps the chil learn the language in a relatively short time
cognition
includes knowledge and such mental processes as memory and auitoryand visual perception
cognitive theory
states that lanugae acquistion is made possible by cogniton and general intellectual processes. (according to this view, knowledge comes first and language later)
limited language skils
descrived as a language delay, lanugage disorder, langugage guage impairment, or language problem.
syntax
the arrangement of words into meaningul sentences
syntactic problems
are difficulties in sentence construction, as expressed in grammaticaly inappropriate forms
pragmatic
aspets of language refer to appropriate use of language in social context
pragmatic problem
are those of language use.
physical or social isolation
reduces the human concts that are needd toa cquire language.
socially deprived
children whoare not totally isolated but experience reduced social contact also may show a slowe than normal rate of language acquistion.
language assessments
a process of observation and measurement of a clients language behaviors to determine a)wheter a clinical problem exists; b)the nature and extent of the problem, if it exists; and c)a couse ofaction to help the child and the family
standarized test
frequently administered to determine whetertha child lags behind children of his or her age
expressive langageskills
persons talking (language production)
receptive language skill
persons understandin of what is said ( spoken language)
language sampling
a masure of language vital to a diagnosis of language disorders in children. the procedure of recodin aperson language productions under relatively normal conditions and whenever possible whith the help of conversational speech
prognosis
a statement abotu the likely future course of the disorder when certain steps are take or when nothins is done
generalization
the production ofnew skills in new environments without positive or corrective feed back
maintenance
the sustained production of newly (clinically) established skills over time and across situations
incidental teaching
a procdure in which naturally occurring opportunites for communication are used to teach language
expansions
parents often repeat and elaboraewhat the child says
cognitive or semantic approach
emphasis not on what the chil says but on what the knows, about things and events
stimulus bound
which means that a behavior learned in a particular situation is bound to that situation only. Children with autism ae like to be extremlely stimulus bound
desktop auditory trainers
consist ofan amplifier to which multiple earphones are attached