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Terms in this set (83)
Romantic Era Dates
Historical Events in 19th century
French Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Rise of the Middle Class
Self-actualization, emotional expression, individualism
A movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.
All about Narrative voice
A persons life is not separate from their composition
Form of Symphony Mov't. 1
Sonata Form (Exposition, Development, Recapitulation)
Form of Symphony Mov't. 2
Theme and Variations or Modified Sonata Form
Form of Symphony Mov't. 3
19th Century (Scherzo)- from Haydn : - )
Form of Symphony; mov't. 4
A song written for solo voice and piano.
1797-1828, wrote German Lieder (Erlkonig), died of syphilis
1815: Art song based on the German legend of the elf king (the personification of death), use of triplets, minor vs. major tonalities, multiple characters with one singer
Improvements made in the Piano
Triple strung strings, increased tuning stability, double escapement, more complex action, 88 keys, richer sound quality
POET OF THE PIANO! Polish composer (Polonaise and Mazurka), Died of turbuculosis, relationship with Aurore Dudevant (George Sand)
Wrote Hungarian Rhapsodies. Credited for the Symphonic Poem.
Nocturne in c minor, op. 48, no. 1
Chopin (1841): chromaticism used for emotional intensity, Ternary form with variation on A (more dramatic and expressive), Sotto Voce, tempo tubato, wide leaps in left hand
Prelude in e minor, op. 28 no. 4
Chopin (1839): molto espress, rubato, delayed resolution, deceptive cadence
Polonaise in A Major, op. 40, no. 1 "Military"
Chopin (1838): Polish dance in triple meter, nationalistic rhythms and melodies from Poland, rhythmic intensity meant to represent militaristic procession
Types of 19th Century Opera
Opera Buffa (Italy), Singspiel (Germany), Grand Opera (France), Music Drama (Germany), Opera Seria (Italy), Opera Comique (France)
1813-1901; lost entire family, gave up composing temporarily, after he returned, he wrote some of the most famous operas ever written including Rigoletto
Used early operas as political unification, independence of Italy. Insisted that music was most important thing in Operas. More important than Drama and Text.
Verdi's last two operas were both adapted from works of William Shakespeare, who was an important figure to nineteenth-century literary thought.
1851: Opera seria, libretto (Victor Hugo's Le Roi S'amuse), 1851: Opera seria, libretto (Victor Hugo's Le Roi S'amuse),
1813-1883 (born in Leipzig)
Took part in the revolution in Dresden (1849)
Created the music drama: more dramatic use of theatrical elemetns
Music Drama is his big contribution to music. Credited for the Orchestra pit.
Comprehensive art, a synthesis of all the arts (associated with Wagnerian Opera/music drama)
Musical lines that represent specific characters, events, or emotions, Wagner developed and perfected in his music drama The Ring of Nibelung Cycle (4 operas with unified story line)
Recurring melodic fragment or chord with dramatic or emotional significance.
Extreme expressive dissonance, chromatic harmony, Flexible, free melodies, Endless fabric of emotion through music (no recitative)
Brahms Requiem Mass
1868; arch form, written in German not latin, protestant church, influenced by personal motivation (death of mother and friend Robert Schumann), How Lovely is Thy Dwelling Place (5 part Rondo...ABACA, based on Psalm 84: 1, 2, 4)
1811-1886, Born in Doborjan, Hungary; one of the most prolific and technically virtuosic pianists in history, developed the symphonic poem, known for his thematic transformations
In his symphonic poems, Liszt employed thematic transformation to develop structural coherence in unconventional forms.
"Under the breath"- in an undertone; played very softly for emphasis
"Robbed time"; free tempo, no strict beat, more rhythmic freedom
Used by Chopin. "Robbing from the tempo, paying back from others." Tempo fluctuates.
Types of Program Music
Concerto Overture, Program Symphony, Symphonic Poem, Incindental Music
Berlioz Symphony Fantastique
1830; has 5 movements! Story line goes along with the symphony, based on his own life story, idee fixe represents his beloved, use of thematic transformation, use of solo bassoon!
A common theme used in a programmatic symphony that represents a specific character or mood.
French Revolution Signified What?
Rise of middle class, end of aristocracy, the beginning of democracy in Europe.
18th century musical style
Elegant melodic lines (conjunct), balanced forms (ABA)- ternary, diatonic harmonies, rhythmic regularity, emotional restraint
19th century musical style
Expressive dissonance, increased chromaticism, expressive melodic writing, extremes in dynamics, unusual rhythmic patterns, expanded forms, unusual ranges for instruments, emotional and dark topics (death, unrequited love, tragedy, etc.)
Composers of Italian Opera in the 19th century
Verdi, Rossini, Puccini
Transcendental Music on Paganini "The Little Bell"
1838 by Franz Liszt: Instrumental virtuosity possible because of piano development, based on Paganini's caprices for solo violin
From Wagner's Ring Cycle (1856): Gesamtkunstwerk, leitmotifs and characters, endless melody (no recitative), chromaticism and expressive dissonance
Beethoven Symphony no. 5
1808; Allegro con brio, 3 short-1ong, Sonata form/theme and variation/scherzo, first symnphony to have a motive unifying all 4 movements (influece from Haydn, impacted composers to follow including Berlioz- Idee Fixe in Symphony Fantastique and Wagner's Leitmotifs)
Brahms Symphony no. 3
1883: minor tonality in third movement, rhythmic complexity (syncopation across bar, 3 against 2)
Virtuosic passage near the end of a concerto used to feature the soloist
Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky
1840-1893: Wrote memorable and expressive melodies, struggled with his homosexuality, introverted, extremely sensitive, attempted suicide after the premier of his 6th symphony (it was not well-received)
1892; use of new instrument celesta (dev. 1886), ETA Hoffmann wrote original story, colorful and rich orchestration, pizzicato strings, exoticism, Asian influence prevalent
Tchaikovsky's unique timbre in ballet
Celesta used to create athereal and magical atmosphere for his Ballet
Writing music for patriotic reasons to represent a certain culture or nationality.
Artistic movement in late 19th Century. Consciousness of national characteristics led artists to turn away from German influence.
Examples of Nationalistic Music
Dvorak's "New World" symphony, Chopin's Polonaise "Millitary", Liszt's Hungarian Rhapsody, Beethoven's Fidelio (Rescue Opera), Tchaikovsky's Trepek from The Nutcracker (Russion Dance)
Hungarian Rhapsody no. 2
1847 by Franz Liszt: Based on Hungarian folk music
(Gypsy scale), used extensively in pop culture
Beethoven's Pathetique Sonata
1798; slow introduction, passionate intensity; 3rd movement: Rondo Form
7 part Rondo Form
ABACABA: Usually 4th movement of symphony in this form.
Romeo and Juliette
Tchaikovsky (1870): Concerto overture based on Shakespeare's famous love story, used extensively in contemporary film (stereotypical love scenes)
Dvorak Symphony no. 9 "New World"
1893: Composed during his visit to the US, programmatic conception, recurring themes, classical, bohemian, spiritual stylistic influence
Italian style of singing featuring florid vocal lines
A setting of a serious poets works to a piece of music by a serious composer.
Narrative songs without words.
Born in Germany. Wrote nine symphonies. Became deaf.
Studied medicine before music.
Wrote 4 symphonies. Romantic composer. Most "Traditional" in terms of classical harmony and stereotypes.
took up the tradition of Mendelssohn and Schumann and later provided important support to the career of Dvořák
Impromptus, Ballads, Preludes, Nocturne.
Still existent during Romantic Period. Music written for a choir.
One movement orchestral composition. Inspired by literature and dramatic expression.
French word for study.
Composer of Nessa Dorma. Leader of Verismo Movement Opera. Wanted to capture perceived reality and express it through Opera.
Gilbert and Sullivan
Sullivan from Ireland. Gilbert from England. Known for Operetta.
Relatively short piece of improvisatory character.
German art song.
Born in Germany. Was also a teacher, conductor, and fluent in many languages. Died at 38.
Wagner's concept of music theatre. Music and drama of equal interest.
Pieces thought appropriate for the night.
Nocturne in E flat Major
Chopin. Genre is Character Piece (Nocturne). Romantic Period.
Light opera, pokes fun at society. Humorous, multisyllabic words. Genre is Operetta.
Short mood pieces, no form.
Ride of the Valkyries
Wagner. Leimotif. Genre is Music Drama.
"I feel, therefore I am."
Successful in composition of Piano music and lied. Studied law, but switched to piano music. Wrote many art songs.
worked as a music critic and founded the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, an independent music journal.
AKA Tone Poem. One movement orchestral piece. Form based on programmatic principles.
Berlioz. Genre is Program Symphony. Leimotif is featured.
Born in Russia. Studied law before doing music.
The "dissimilar duet" was designed to express dramatic conflict in opera by the composer
The Italian composers of the Romantic period developed a structure for the large solo operatic number in __________ large parts.
The first scholarly edition of a historical composer's works began to be issued in the middle of the nineteenth century.
Carnaval, Schumann's Fourth Symphony, and Harold en Italie all employ literary material to unify their structures.
The Davidsbund was a group of musicians and music lovers who met to discuss music.
The _________________________ employed plots that featured violent emotional outbreaks in characters from the lower classes and a musical style based on declamatory singing and powerful orchestration.
moguchay kuchka (mighty five)
was an important group of nationalist composers in the late nineteenth century.
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