speaker -> argument -> speech -> listener(s) persuasion, Comm Paradigm: SMR=E, Directional Paradigm: one way, Intellectual paradigm: rhetoric, philosophy
who says what to whom in what channel with what effect verbal messages, emphasizes speaker and audience Comm Paradigm: SMR=E, Directional Paradigm: one way, Intellectual Paradigm: political science, propaganda
Shannon & Weaver's Model
think old landline phones, addition of transmitter, message vs. signal, Comm Paradigm: SMR=E, Intellectual Paradigm: Engineers for Bell Telephone Co., Directional Paradigm: one way
field of experience, what sender/receiver brings to the table, interpretations. Comm Paradigm: SMR=E, Intellectual Paradigm: Mass Comm, Directional Paradigm: one way
Katz & Lazarsfeld's Model
Two-Step Flow: 1.) Diffusion Theory- how idea gets diffused throughout society 2.) Opinion Leaders- who others turn to b/c those others feel that the opinion leader knows best about that subject Comm Paradigm: SMR=E, Intellectual Paradigm: Mass Comm, Directional Paradigm: one way
Westley & Maclean's Model
starts with signals, or potential signals (hear, smell, see...), incorporates feedback, begins with receiving a message. Comm Paradigm: SMR=E, Intellectual Paradigm: Journalism, Directional Paradigm: Circular (because of feedback)
helical/spiral model, adds TIME to the model of communication, Comm Paradigm: NEITHER SMR=E NOR constitutive. Directional Paradigm: NEITHER 1-way NOR 2-way. Intellectual Paradigm: Communications
Wazlawick, Beavin & Jackson's Model
individuals function alternatively as sender & receiver. Messages shaped by Person A and B together. "You cannot not communicate" Meaning varies depending on individual characteristics. Comm Paradigm: Constitutive, Intellectual Paradigm: Psych, Directional Paradigm: 2-way
everyone is sender and receiver, but message that receiver receives is NEVER identical to the one the source transmits, people serve as originators and receivers (shift from one another) Idiosyncratic= particular to the individual. Info received can serve as feedback. Comm Paradigm: constitutive, Intellectual: Communications, Directional Paradigm: circular
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