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fundamentals of nursing ch 39 oxygenation
Terms in this set (67)
adventitious breath sounds
extra or additional sounds that are heard over normal breath sounds. sounds are superimposed or added on top of normal breath sounds
composed of the nose, pharynx, larynx, and epiglottis, its main function is to warm, filter, and humidify ;inspired air
known as the treacheobronchial tree, includes the treachea, right and left main stem bronchi, segemental bronchi, and terminalbronchioles
what airways are lined with, which trap cells, particles, and infectious debris
microscopic hair-like projections, propel trapped material and accompanying mucus toward the upper airway so they can be removed by coughing
has 3 lobes: superior, middle, and inferior
has 2 lobes: superior and inferior
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
a detergent-like phospholipid, reduces the surface tension between the moist membranes of the alveoli, preventing their collapse
covers the lungs
lines the thoracic cavity
This is the name of a watery fluid produced in the thoracic cavity. The fluid comes from the blood. It has three major functions: lubrication, reducing heat buildup, and to create surface tension which causes the lungs to remain against the thoracic wall.
Movement of air into and out of the lungs
the act of breathing
active phase, involves movement of muscles and thorax to bring air into the lungs
the passive phase, the movement of air out of the lungs
factors affecting ventilation
airway resistance (diameter,mucous blockage, bronchdilation, bronchoconstriction )
alveolar compliance (surfactants, surface tension, alveolar elasticity)
the ease with which the lungs can be inflated
requires a greater inspiratory effort to inflate
the result of any impediment or obstruction that air meets as it moves through the airway
a condition characterized by rapid breathing
respiratory rate remains abnormally low and is insufficient to meet the demands for normal oxygen delivery and carbon dioxide removal. (most common cause of hypercapnia)
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
Expiratory Reserve Volume
Amount of air that moves in and out of the lungs during a normal breath
inspiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled after a normal tidal volume inhalation
expiratory reserve volume
Amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation
The amount of air that remains in the lungs after a person exhales as forcefully as he or she can
Inspiratory Capacity; Functional Reserve Capacity; Vital Capacity; Total Lung Capacity
the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after a maximum inhalation (usually tested with a spirometer)
is the amount of air you can draw into your lungs after you have completed a quiet respiratory cycle (sum of the tital volume and the respiratory reserve volume)
total lung capacity
The maximal volume of air that the lungs can contain. Total lung capacity is the sum of the vital capacity and the residual volume, and is typically about 6000 mL (6L).
change of gases (CO2& O2) from area of higher pressure to lower pressure in alveolar capillary bed
The process in which blood carries oxygen and important nutrients to body tissues. depends on many body compensatory responses, but also on the administration of appropriate fluid volumes to maintain vascular volume.
condition in which an inadequate amount of oxygen is available to cells
four factors that influence diffusion
change in surface area available
thickening of alveolar-capillary membrane
solubility and molecular weight of the gas
effects of chronic hypoxia
can be detected in all body systems and are maifested as altered thought processess, headaches, chest pain, enlarged heart,clubbing of the fingers and toes, anorexia, constipation, decreased urinary output, decreased libido, weakness of exterimity muscles, and muscle pain
only has 21% of oxygen in it
perfusion, ventilation, and diffusion
3 processes that have to happen to breathe
factors that affect oxygenation
level of health
abnormally rapid breathing
form of dyspnea in which the person can breathe comfortably only when standing or sitting erect
sudden expulsion of air from the lungs that clears the air passages
Material coughed up from lungs. Contains mucus, cellular debris, or microorganisms and may contain blood or pus. Amount, color and constituents of sputum are important diagnostic information.
coughing up blood from the respiratory tract
level of consciousness
result of prolonged oxygen deficieny, endocarditis, congenital heart defects
Bluish color of the skin, nail beds, and/or lips due to an insufficient amount of oxygen in the blood
chronic poor oxygenation shown by clubbing of fingers.
high-pitched sound heard on inspiration; upper-airway sound indicating partial obstruction of the trachea or larynx
normal relaxed breathing
absence of breathing
a rhythmic respiratory pattern where there is a variation in depth of respirations alternating with periods of apnea
is a deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also renal failure. It is a form of hyperventilation, breathing which is increased above the normal rate.
In metabolic acidosis, breathing is first rapid and shallow but as acidosis worsens, breathing gradually becomes deep, slow, labored and gasping.
low pitched, breezy sounding, soft, long inspiration and short expiration, auscultated over the peripheral lung fields
normal breath sounds heard over major bronchi, characterized by moderate pitch & an equal duration of inspiration & expiration
high pitched, loud, harsh or hollow sounding, short during inspiration, long expiration, auscultated on the trachea and thorax
a normal breath sound; harsh and high pitched, heard over the trachea
abnormal lung sounds heard on auscultation; discrete single sounds heard on inspiration, occur in brief bursts; may be fine (high pitched or soft) or coarse (low pitched and loud); "rales"
high-pitched sounds, musical, air moving thru narrowed passages in lungs; asthma, chronic bronchitis and emphysema
lower-pitched sounds like snoring or rattling, secretions in larger airways (pneumonia, bronchitis, aspiration)
discontinuous low pitch, grating, does not dissappear w/ cough. sounds like 2 pieces of leather, severe pain when breathing
pulmonary function test
a group of diagnostic tests that give information regarding air flow in and out of the lungs, lung volumes and gas exchange between the lungs and bloodstream
Testing method that utilizes a spirometer to record the volume of air inhaled or exhaled and the length of tiem each breath takes.
This is peak expiratory flow rates, used to determine extent of damage to lungs. This is the fastest speed at which air is exhaled. Asthma will have low numbers.
a noninvasive technique that measures the arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation of arterial blood
arterial blood gas
measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood from an artery
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