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Pharmacology Lecture 8
Terms in this set (144)
- potential health care risk
- vectors for dz
Why use antiparasitics?
- buffer antiparasitic marketing tactics
- correct application
- educate client
- discuss antiparasitic resistance
- help choose correct drug
What is the VT role as primary client educator?
over the counter
OTC stands for
Food and Drug Administration
FDA stands for
Rx stands for
keeping track of:
- active ingredients
- proprietary names
- old/vs new compounds
What are some antiparasitic drug challenges?
Most topical or limited absorption antiparasitics are regulated by __________ are "pesticides"
Environmental Protection Agency
EPA stands for
Most oral/significantly absorbed antiparasitics are regulated by __________
most topical antiparasitcs are sold how?
Most oral antiparasitics are sold how?
kills both endo and ectoparasites
Eradicates intestinal worms by stunning or killing
two types or antihelmintics
3 types of vermicide
kills roundworms (ascards)
antinematodal drugs are also known as
Examples of Macrolytic Lactones drugs
2 Macrolytic Lactones drug derivatives
- neurotoxins cause paralysis
- stimulate glutamate in parasite, interrupting nerve transmission
- paralyses parasite through muscle innervation loss (wATs inNerVAtiON ? ?)
Macrolytic lactones mode of action
cestodes and trematodes
Avermectins and Milbemycins are not effective against which parasites
- low concentrations required
- banned in dairy animals
- oral formulation excreted in feces as active drug
Avermectins and Milbemycins pharmacoloy and characteristics
- lack of functional p-glycoprotein (PGp) at blood barrier
Avermectins and Milbemycins side effects
- CNS depression
lack of functional p-glycoprotein (PGp) at blood barrier results in
- Ca channel blockers
5 types of drugs that inhibit PGp
2 types of Ivermectin oral formulations
Which drug is Ivermectin combined with to create Heartgard Plus
Ivermectin is not against against what type or parasites
- - Microfilaricide
- monthly heartworm preventative
- tx Otodectes cynotis
- tx Demodex spp & Sarcoptex spp
Ivermectin drug uses
- tolerated by patients
- safe for Collie-like breeds bc topical
- safe for pediatrics
- safe flea/mite control in rabbits + rodents
Selamectin side effects
- - prevent American dog tick
- monthly heartworm & flea preventative
- tx Otodectes & Sarcoptes
- tx + prevent ascarids in cats (hookworm + roundwom)
Selamectin + Sarolaner
Avermectin combo example
Selamectin + Sarolaner make up what
Selamectin + Sarolaner is used topically in which animal
- Monthly heartworm prevention
- Treatment of hookworms & roundworms
- Treatment of Demodex & Otodectes cynotis
- Treatment of canine Trichuris vulpis (whipworms)
Milbemycin oxime uses
- dogs only
- 6 month slow release injectable heartworm preventative
Moxidectin Proheart 6 indications
- Moxidectin + Imidocloprid combo
- prevent heartworm, hooks, roundworms & whipworms
- tx Sarcoptes
Moxidectin Advantage Multi indications
Advantage Multi (topical)
Which milbemycin is the only FDA microfilaricide used in dogs?
list the 5 benzimidazoles drugs
2 Fenbendazol proprietary names
Febantel proprietary name
Thiabendazole proprietary name
Oxibendazole proprietary name
Valbazen (Large animals)
Albendazole proprietary name
Febendazole such as Panacut is effective against what
When administering Panacur, it needs to be given on __________
Panacur is available in which formulations?
needs animal's metabolism to converts to active forms
Febantel such as Drontal Plus is a prodrug, meaning?
febendazole and oxibendazole
After being converted by the animal's metabolism, what are Drontal Plus active forms?
Which drugs make up Drontal Plus?
Examples of a Thiabendazole drug
put in fridge
How do you store Tresaderm?
attacks β tubulin proteins in parasites by binding and disrupt cell function
- Albendazole is teratogenic
- cell aplasias
What are safety concerns regarding Benzimidazoles?
Are Mammalian β tubulin different than parasitic β tubulin? True or False?
- cholingergic (nicotinic) receptor agonist
Pyrantel and Levamisole machanism of action
causes spastic muscle contractions leading to paralysis/death
What happened when nicotinic receptors are overstimulated?
ascarids and hookworms
Pyrantel is effective against what?
Is pyrantel effective against tapeworms and whips?
Is Pyrantel safe and palatable?
What are some Pyrantel drug combos?
Levamisole proprietary names
- limited use in small animals, swine & cattle
- old HW adulticide
- cocaine 👀
List some Levamisole uses
Emodepside and Praziquantel
Profender is made up of which drugs?
releases unknown presynaptic inhibitory neurotransmitter
Emodepside topical formulatyion is only use in which animal
Empdepside PO formulation is only used in which animal
Emodepside is OTC, true or false
anticestodal action w/ praziquantel
Emodepside is effective against what
OTC oral dewormer
What is a Piperazine used for? OTC or Rx?
- stimulate GABA causing influx of Cl- similar to macrolytics
- parayse adult GI parasites
Piperazine is only effective against
Praziquantel & Episprantel
Types of Anticestodal drugs
- destroy tapeworms by increasing cell permeability to calcium
- dmg tapeworm protective outer covering
Praziquantel proprietary names
Epsiprantel proprietary names
Praziquantel and Pyrantel pamoate
Praziquantel and Pyrantel pamoate and Febantel
skin sloughoung at inj site
Praziquantel side effects
Taenia , Dipylidium
Epsiprantel effective against
HW Alduticides targets
young, circulating larvae
HW Microfilaricides targets
infective L3 stage larvae
HW Preventatitives target
Using Macrocyclic lactones as a slow-kill adulticide is NOT RECOMMENDED. true or false?
- Melarsomine Dihydrochloride
are the only _____________________ adulticide for use in dogs
strict cage rest
When using Melarsomine, patient should be kept on __________ during tx
Types of Microfilaricides
kill L3 and L4 stage heartwork larvae
What do HW preventatives do?
When testing for HWD, animals should test __________ first
What are some FDA approve Heartworm preventatives?
Examples of Antiprotozoals
Sulfanomides are the only _____________________ tx for _____________ in dogs and cats
Benzimidazoles are primarily used to treat what
clindamycin is used to treat _______________ in dogs and cats
Metronidazole can give what type of side effects when used for extended periods?
Ionophores are lethal in which animal?
Amprolium is an additive for feed of water commonly used in which animals
Amprolium mechanism of action
Extended use of Amprolium can cause what deficiency in host animal?
Panacur is only _______% effect in cats
Ponazuril is used to treat what in horses?
Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM)
Sarcocystic neurona leads to what dz in equine?
Ectoparasite antiparasitics are all what type of drugs?
- Inhibit neurotransmitters ( ie Ach)
- Enhance neurotransmitters ie GABA)
How do ectoparasite antiparasitics work?
1. Organophosphates & Carbamates
2. Pyrethrins Pyrethroids
4. Macrocyclic Lactones
10. Insect Growth Regulators
Ectoparasite antiparasitics 10 categories
OTC agricultural & garden products as insecticides
Organophosphates & Carbamates are primarily used in
Inhibits acetylcholinesterase (Achase )
Organophosphates & Carbamates mode of action
Pyrethroids are only used for dogs before they are toxic to which animals?
Flumethrin + Imidacloprid drug combo is commonly used for what type of collar
Etofenprox such as Sentry and Adams are often combined with what drug
not for cats or humans
wear gloves, mask, eye protection
When using Amitraz, you must______
Yohimbine and Atipamezole
alpha 2 agonist
blocks chloride channels
Which drug is stores in sebaceous glands with a residual effect for 30 days?
Insect growth regulators
IGRs stands for
halts development of flea larvae/eggs
rabbits and fish
Fipronil is toxic to which animals
IGRs examples that are often combined with Fipronil
Seresto collars contain what
Seresto collars with flumethrin is safe for cats. True or false?
Spinosyns should not be used with Ivermectin dosing for demodex. True or false
Which animals are Fluralaner and Axofolaner NOT approved in?
Indoxacarb + Permethrin
Activyl Tick Plus is made out of which drug combo
Out of Activyl Tick Plus and Activyl, which one is safe for both dogs and cats?
Juvinile Hormone Analogs
mimic hormones causing juvenile parasites to remain underdeveloped
interfere with chitin synthesis in flea & egg exoskeleton
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