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Exer Phys Extra credit study
Terms in this set (75)
When training for both strength and endurance at the same time, muscle fibers that are recruited improve their aerobic function as when training only for endurance.
With endurance training, fiber types do not change from type I to type II.
Which of the following does not help the ventricles fill with blood?
The body adapts to endurance training by:
Improving delivery and utilization of oxygen to enhance muscular endurance
Select the option that is not true: Changes in fiber type:
Occur with resistance training (i.e., type I to type II)
Air moves into and out of the lungs when:
Pressure differences exist between intrapulmonic pressure and atmospheric pressure.
What is the best use of the force-time curve?
To evaluate the progress of training programs directed at power development
At rest, central chemoreceptors:
are especially responsive to changes in pH or H+ concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid
In order to understand where the body is in space, a __________ is needed to relay important information regarding body position and orientation to the central nervous system.
Gas diffusion at the lungs is mainly dependent on:
Partial pressure difference between air within the alveoli and blood
The filament within muscle fibers that interact with each other to produce shortening and force generation are called:
Actin and Myosin
Select the option that is not true: Aerobic training:
Decreases end-diastolic volume
During physical activity:
More oxygen is taken from the blood by muscle
Why do people tend to open their mouths to breathe during heavy exercise?
To reduce the resistance to air flow
Which of these methods is not used to identify muscle fiber type?
Activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum
The spread of the electrical impulse among the muscle fibers of the heart:
is achieved through intercalated discs
Which athlete is likely to predominantly rely on type I motor units?
A cross-country runner
Changes in muscle length due to muscle contraction are caused by:
The sliding of actin and myosin filaments over each other
The use of oxygen in aerobic metabolism and production of carbon dioxide is referred to as:
The respiratory compensation point is defined as:
The work intensity at which the ventilatory equivalents of both oxygen and carbon dioxide increase
In healthy individuals, respiratory fatigue:
May occur with high (> 80-85% peak oxygen consumption) exercise intensities
How does cytostolic decrease to resting levels over contraction?
A Ca2+ pumps brings it into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
Select the option that is not true: The nasal passages and structures prior to the respiratory bronchioles:
The preferred term for an exercise movement that involves the same resistance (such as a 15-lb dumbbell) throughout the range of motion is:
This noncontractile protein stabilizes actin and extends from the Z line but not to the M line.
Changes in temperature and acidity shift the oxyhemoglobin disassociation curve to the right, causing greater delivery of oxygen to muscle tissue during exercise.
The ventilatory equivalent indicated that the partial pressure of _______ exerts more control over pulmonary ventilation than the other options listed.
When endurance and strength training programs are performed concurrently, the body is likely to experience improvements in:
Endurance performance at the expense of strength training gains
Once activated, what is the function of ryanodine receptors (on the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum)?
the diaphragm relaxes, increasing intrapulmonic pressure
Select the option that is not true: The sarcoplasmic reticulum is not:
sensitive to acetylcholine
What directly causes tropomyosin to shift away from active sites on actin?
The binding of calcium to toponin C
Select the option that is not true: Delayed-onset muscles soreness (DOMS) is cause by:
Lactic acid build up in muscle
As the result of a resistance training program:
Blood pressure during submaximal exercise is decreased.
What peripheral increases are central chemoreceptors more likely to respond to during exercise (as compared to rest)?
Plasma carbon dioxide because it diffuses quickly across the membrane
Why is the shape of the alveoli and the capillary beds surrounding them important?
it creates large surface area for pulmonary diffusion
The sigmoidal shape of the oxyhemoglobin disassociation curve ensures each of the following except:
adequate iron stores in the body
What is the function of dihydropyridine (DHP) receptors at the T-tubule in muscle?
Detect an electrical impulse that has crossed the neuromuscular junction
According to the force-velocity curve, the highest force can be produced during the _____________ phase of a movement.
The movement of the myosin cross-bridge at its hinge and the shortening of the sarcomere is referred to as:
the power stroke
What technique does the body not use to control blood flow during activity?
Altering the hemoglobin content of blood
The fastest autorhythmicity is seen in the:
The blood pressure of the pulmonary system:
is lower than systemic circulation, which protects the respiratory membrane
The regulation of carbon dioxide:
controlled primarily because of its influence on hydrogen ion concentrations
Pulmonary ventilation receives neural input from the motor cortex of the brain, which often creates an increase in ventilation before chemoreceptors and other receptors are stimulated by exercise.
Select the option that is NOT true: The respiratory control center:
is typically controlled voluntarily
The left ventricle:
is increased in size with strength training
As endurance exercise continues to higher intensities:
tidal volume increases
After an electrical impulse crosses the neuromuscular junction, it travels down:
Which of the following is not an adaptation contributing to the decreased stroke volume seen at rest and submaximal exercise in endurance-trained athletes?
decreased left ventricular muscle mass
At what specific point are actomyosin compmlexes formed?
when active sites on actin are exposed
The right ventricle:
pumps blood to the pulmonary circulation
Which of the following is not one of the ways that carbon dioxide is transported in the blood:
on the heme portion of hemoglobin
Muscle growth from long-term resistance training is primarily due to the increase in the:
size of the individuals muscle fibers
At greater than 50% to 60% peak oxygen consumption:
a disproportionate increase in ventilation occurs due to increased acidity
Which of the following is not a function of connective tissue of muscle?
to protect against the overly elastic component of muscle
Seventy percent of carbon dioxide transported is bound to hemoglobin.
The growth in the absolute size of a muscle due to resistance training is primarily due to the increase in the number of individual muscle fibers.
At rest, the proteins troponin and tropomyosin cover the active sites on actin molecules, preventing the myosin heads from binding to the active sites.
Which artery is the first artery to leave the aorta and supplies the heart with its nutrients and blood supply?
During Inspiration, air leaving the trachea enters directly into the ___________.
Which of the following composes the greatest part of the hematocrit?
Fast-twitch muscle fibers are characterized by the ability to resist fatigue and produce relatively small amounts of force.
The QRS in an electrocardiogram represents relaxation of the ventricles.
A major distinction between skeletal and cardiac muscle is the autorhythmicity of cardiac muscle.
It is possible for the diaphragm to hypertrophy.
Aerobic training increases the number of alveoli.
According to the Frank-Starling mechanism, if end-diastolic volume of a ventricle increases, stroke volume will decrease.
Lung tissue is capable of contacting.
Which tissue of the heart has the fastest autorhythmicity.
An adaptation to long-term endurance training is a decrease in hematocrit.
A marathon runner at the Olympic Games would have a high percentage of what type of fiber?
Which protein of the sarcomere has the heads that bind to active sites?
The bottom portions of the lungs receive more ventilation at rest than the upper portions.
All of the air inspired reaches the alveoli, where gas exchange takes place.
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