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66 terms

J Fresh's English Nine Terms and Devices

Terms and Devices
STUDY
PLAY
alliteration
Repetition of initial consonant sounds
allusion
A reference to another work of literature, person, or event
antagonist
A character or force in conflict with the main character
apostrophe
A figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or a personified abstraction, such as liberty or love.
assonance
Repetition of a vowel sound within two or more words in close proximity
ballad
A narrative poem written in four-line stanzas, characterized by swift action and narrated in a direct style. The Anonymous medieval ballad, "Barbara Allan," exemplifies the genre.
blank verse
Poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter
cliche
A worn-out idea or overused expression
climax
Most exciting moment of the story; turning point
comedy
A literary work which ends happily because the hero or heroine is able to overcome obstacles and get what he or she wants.
compare
Give an account of the similarities between two (or more) items or situations, referring to both (all) of them throughout.
conflict
A struggle between opposing forces
conclusion
A summary based on evidence or facts
contrast
All the ways they are different
couplets
A two successive lines of poetry with the same end rime.
description
A rhetorical mode based in the five senses. It aims to re-create, invent, or present something so that the reader can experience it.
deus ex machina
"An unrealistic or unexpected intervention to rescue the protagonists or resolve the conflict. The term means ""The god out of the machine"" and refers to stage machinery."
dialogue
Conversation between characters
drama
(theater) irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play, (theater) irony that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play
euphemism
An indirect, less offensive way of saying something that is considered unpleasant
exposition
A narrative device, often used at the beginning of a work that provides necessary background information about the characters and their circumstances.
expository
A form of writing that provides information or explains something to an audience. A report or an essay are examples.
falling action
Events after the climax, leading to the resolution
figurative language
A form of language use in which writers and speakers convey something other than the literal meaning of their words.
first person point of view
Narrator tells story from his/her point of view and refers to him/herself as "I". This narrator may be an active character ir observer.
flashback
A method of narration in which present action is temporarily interrupted so that the reader can witness past events
foreshadowing
A narrative device that hints at coming events; often builds suspense or anxiety in the reader.
free verse
Poetry that does not have a regular meter or rhyme scheme
genre
A category or type of literature (or of art, music, etc.) characterized by a particular form, style, or content.
haiku
3 unrhymed lines (5, 7, 5) usually focusing on nature
hyperbole
A figure of speech that uses exaggeration to express strong emotion, make a point, or evoke humor
idiom
A group of words established by usage as having a meaning not deducible from those of the individual words
imagery
Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
irony
A contrast or discrepancy between what is stated and what is really meant, or between what is expected to happen and what actually does happen.
limited omniscient point of view
The author tells the story, using the third person, but is limited to a complete knowledge of one character in the story and tells us only what that one character thinks, feels, sees, or hears.
literal language
A form of language in which writers and speakers mean exactly what their words denote.
meter
A regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line of poetry
metaphor
A figure of speech in which an expression is used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity.
mood
Feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for the reader
metonymy
A figure of speech in which something is referred to by using the name of something that is associated with it
narration
Retelling an event or series of events
narrator
One who tells a story
objective point of view
a narrator who is totally impersonal and objective tells the story, with no comment on any characters or events.
omniscient point of view
The point of view where the narrator knows everything about the characters and their problems - told in the 3rd person.
onomatopoeia
A figure of speech in which natural sounds are imitated in the sounds of words.
oxymoron
A figure of speech that combines opposite or contradictory terms in a brief phrase.
parallelism
Phrases or sentences of a similar construction/meaning placed side by side, balancing each other
persuasion
A kind of speaking or writing that is intended to influence people's actions.
pathos
A quality that evokes pity or sadness
personification
A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human feelings, thoughts, or attitudes
plot
Sequence of events in a story
repetition
The reappearance of a sound, a word, a phrase, a stanza, or other structure in any literary work.
rhyme
Repetition of accented vowel sounds and all sounds following them in words that are close together in a poem.
rhythm
Definition: A musical quality produced by the repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables (meter) or by the repetition of words and phrases or even whole lines or sentence
rising action
Events leading up to the climax
run-on sentence
made up of two or more sentences that are incorrectly run together as a single sentence
satire
A work that reveals a critical attitude toward some element of human behavior by portraying it in an extreme way. It doesn't simply abuse (as in invective) or get personal (as in sarcasm). It targets groups or large concepts rather than individuals.
setting
The context in time and place in which the action of a story occurs.
sentence fragment
a sentence missing a subject or verb or complete thought
simile
A comparison using like or as
stanza
A group of lines in a poem
suspense
Excited anticipation of an approaching climax
symbol
A thing that represents or stands for something else, esp. a material object representing something abstract.
theme
Central idea of a work of literature
third person point of view
an unknown narrator, tells the story, but this narrator zooms in to focus on the thoughts and feelings of only one character.
tone
A writer's attitude toward his or her subject matter revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization on the sentence and global levels.