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Terms in this set (36)
An action on the part of one organism that alters the probability of occurrence of behavior patterns in another organism in a fashion adaptive to either one or both participants.
signals, form in which message is transmitted
display to be maintained, sender must always benefit somehow. display requires the output of energy.
receiver may or may not benefit, receiver could be harmed when display is envoked.
can be songs, or vocalizations, colorations, body gestures. basis for how these signals can be sent
behavior becomes stereotyped, presented the same way all the time between all individuals in the group
communication power of that display is increased, more ritualized
because it's stereotyped, greater ability to control behavior with recepient and less energy is spent to make sure receipient gets it
rare form of display, display that intentionally sends false information
there or isn't there
ears up or down
variable, communicants intensity by what's happening
more open the mouth the more intense the communication
two or more signals combined, strong message being sent
odor channel of communication
important to mammals, marking of territories, changes in pheromones
promote generalized response
allows them to communicate potential dangers from one group to another, availability of food
help species recognize those from the same species, help members who are related to one another recognize the degree of relationship
advertise reproductive state
the more the male roars, the more likely it will be able to mate. always the female that determines if mating is going to occur
allows these individuals to predetermine who would win the fight, without needing to fight
saves energy, avoids injury, increases likelihood of reproduction, fitness, etc.
if the behaviors communicate social status, maintains group dynamics, dominate wolf doesn't need to prove itself. engages in behaviors.
most indivudals in group are better off because of that
one member of the group engaging communicates to the rest of the group that the predator is in the area.
make different sounds and warnings for different types of predators, squirrel bark for a hawk is different than a squirrel bark for a cat
rally, get everyone to cooperate and hunt
solicit care, relatives, begging or offer food, some sort of bribe to get care
grooming, linked between individuals that are related
function is not understood and argued
play is practicing motor skills that are used later on in life
behaviors related to aggressive interactions between individuals
threats, submissions, chases, physical contact, not predator and prey stuff
between individuals that are not predator and prey
offensive and defensive component, aggressive attack
territorial agnostic behaviors
exclude others from physical space
where an animal spends most of its time
special breeding territory set up by males, females come through and breeding occurs here
individuals interacting have to have a number of encounters, requires a history
pushing, shoving, leaning: remind them that this is how it would go if they needed to fight
single dominany individual and all other individuals in the group are subbordant, subbordant individuals are equal to eachother.
a is dominant to b, b is dominant to c, c is dominant to d
omega ranking, top is alpha, bottom is omega
is dominant to b but b is dominant to c but c
no clear alpha everyone is dominant or submissive
a is the alpha, single dominance
but b and c form an alliance and work together to become dominant to A
takes continued contact and interaction between individuals for this to work out
primates and dolphins
benefits of being dominant
High reproductive success
costs to not being dominant
Low reproductive success
sexual agnostic behavior
mating starts out as an aggressive interaction that can turn into mating
often starts out as threats or punishments that retain the mate: force it to stay with you, constrain it, threaten.
usually, these punishments and threats are going to be from males towards females.
parental agnostic behavior
mother is very protective and defensive
female that is threatened and dominant, a lot of action will be taking place
parent changes behavior of child
results in a conflict at some point because at a point of weening, the young want to continue to be provided and nurtured but the adult has spent a lot of energy doing that and want to stop it. parent always wins this conflict
eating infants, dominant male has been killed, injured, taken. new male comes in and kills all of existing young because new male isn't related to them.
can be related to food availability, canabilism, consume young and we survive and can reproduce again and produce more young
consumption of embryos
siblings eat each other, not enough food, largest of siblings will eat the smaller siblings.
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