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chap 9, 10

energy conversion

a change from one form of energy to another.

closed system

a group of objects that transfer energy only to each other.( ie a roller coaster )

law of conservation of energy

states that matter cannot be created or destroyed

nonrenewable resources

an energy resource that can't be replaced as fast as we use it. include fossil fuels and nuclear energy.

fossil fuels

oil, coal, and natural gas. nonrenewable

renewable resources

energy resources that are naturally replaced more quickly than they are used. include solar, hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass energy.

solar energy

radiant energy from the sun's rays. used to heat water and create electricity.

hydro electricity

power created by dams that use the power of water to spin turbines.

wind energy

wind mills used to turn turbines to create electricity.

geothermal energy

heat energy from inside the earth.


organic material such as wood, and animal waste. burned for energy.


the measure of the average kinetic energy in an object.

thermal expansion

the increase in the size of a substance in response for the increase in temperature.

absolute zero

0 kelvin. no particle motion.


energy transferred between objects of different temperatures.

thermal energy

total kinetic energy of a substance and its atoms.

thermal conduction

the direct transfer of heat by touch.

thermal conductors

materials that transfer heat.

thermal insulators

a material that prevents the transfer of heat.


the transfer of heat by circulation through a fluid.


the transfer of energy through electromagnetic waves.

specific heat

the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 degree k or c.

states of matter

solid, liquid, gas.

change of state

the change from one state of matter to another.


material that reduces the transfer of thermal energy.

heat engines

a machine that transforms heat into mechanical energy / work.
internal and external combustion engines are in cars.

thermal pollution

the increase in water temperature that is harmful to the environment. caused by power plants.

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