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PHGY 230 Ch 26 Homework
Terms in this set (60)
Digestion begins in the
Bile from the liver and digestive juices from the pancreas enter which section of the small intestine?
Which of the following is not a function of the digestive system?
production of ATP
Which of the following is not secreted by the stomach to aid in digestion?
During digestion, the major site of nutrient absorption is the
Which of the following might stimulate the cephalic phase of gastric secretion?
the thought of food
Gastric secretion is increased in all three phases (cephalic, gastric, intestinal). T/F
Gastric secretion during the intestinal phase is inhibited by the presence of
lipids of low pH
Which phase(s) of gastric secretion is (are) regulated by the medulla oblongata?
all three phases are regulated by the medulla oblongata
What are the three phases of gastric secretion?
cephalic, gastric, intestinal
A portal triad consists of which three structures?
Branches of a hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, and bile ductule
Structurally, the human liver is divided into how many lobes?
The liver lobule is the same as a hepatocyte. T/F
Basic functions of the liver include
secretion, storage, and detoxification
Which two fetal remnants are found on the liver?
The round ligament and the ligamentum venosum
From external to internal, what is the correct order of layers of the stomach?
Serosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa
The stomach is located in which abdominal quadrant?
Functions of the stomach include
chemical and mechanical digestion
Which region of the stomach is continuous with the esophagus?
Which cell of the gastric glands produces pepsinogen?
Mass movements in the colon are stimulated by
food in the stomach and chyme in the duodenum
Mass movements of the colon are integrated by
the enteric plexus
Defecation is stimulated by
parasympathetic and local reflexes
Defecation reflexes are stimulated by the presence of feces in the rectum. T/F
Mass movements of the colon propel its contents toward the rectum. T/F
The process of moving a bolus through the GI tract as a result of involuntary muscle contractions is referred to as
Hydrochloric acid is secreted in the
Most nutrient absorption occurs in the
What organ produces bile?
Which of the following is the correct order for the major parts of the gastrointestinal tract?
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Which of the following does not stimulate the secretion of HCl in the stomach?
Secretin is released from the duodenum in response to
hydrochloric acid in chyme
Which of the following enzymes is produced by the stomach?
When chyme enters the duodenum, gastric secretion increases. T/F
Gastrin functions to increase the production of HCl in the stomach. T/F
Match the swallowing phase with its description.
Bolus passes from pharynx to esophagus - pharyngeal phase
Bolus passes from esophagus to stomach - esophageal phase
Chewing forms a bolus - voluntary phase
Label the structures of the stomach in the figure.
The stomach is lined by a
simple columnar epithelium
Match the secretory cell of the stomach with its secretion.
Surface mucous cell - mucin
Mucous neck cell - acidic mucin
Parietal cell - hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
Chief cell - pepsinogen
Enteroendocrine cell - gastrin
Match the region of the small intestine with one of its functions.
Performs most chemical digestion and absorption - jejunum
Receives bile and pancreatic juice - duodenum
Controls entry of material into large intestine - ileum
Which of the following regions of the large intestine is a muscular tube that expands to store accumulated material prior to defecation, and terminates at the anal canal?
Match the type of movement that occurs in the large intestine with its description.
Peristalsis - weak wave-like muscle contractions
Mass movements - powerful contractions; propels material toward rectum
Haustral contractions - small segment of smooth muscle contracts after being stretched
As bile is produced and secreted, what structures or cells does it encounter? Put them in order, beginning with bile production.
Common hepatic duct
What is the function of bile?
Break down fats to assist in their chemical digestion
Trace the path of bile through the biliary apparatus, beginning at the liver, moving to the gallbladder, and ending at the small intestine.
Left and right hepatic ducts
Common hepatic duct
Common bile duct
Major duodenal papilla
Match each macromolecule below with the monomer(s) to which it is broken down by chemical digestion.
amino acids - proteins
monosaccharides - carbohydrates
monoglycerides and fatty acids - fats
nucleotides - nucleic acids
The process of moving substances through the epithelial cells that line the GI tract into the blood or lymph is called
The muscularis of the GI tract contains two layers of smooth muscles: the outer circular layer and the inner longitudinal layer. T/F
Digestive reflexes that do not involve the central nervous system but instead are local and occur only within the enteric nervous system are called ________ reflexes.
Secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are hormones that are secreted from what GI organ?
Parietal cells of the gastric glands in the stomach produce
HCl (hydrochloric acid)
G-cells of the gastric glands in the stomach produce a hormone called __________ that stimulates stomach secretions and motility.
Motility and secretion in the stomach is generated by the __________ reflex initiated by thought, smell, sight, or taste of food.
The intestinal phase of digestion involves both the intestinal reflex and the release of two primary hormones: _______ and secretin.
The _________ is a mixed gland with endocrine and exocrine functions that produces the majority of the digestive enzymes.
Secretin is released from the small intestine primarily in response to the acidic chyme coming from the stomach and secretin causes the release of an alkaline solution containing bicarbonate from the pancreas. T/F
_________ is a hormone released from the small intestine primarily in response to fatty chyme in the intestinal lumen.
Protein digestion begins in the small intestine. T/F
The enzyme pepsin is formed from pepsinogen through the action of
hydrochloric acid (HCl)
The muscularis usually contains two layers of _____ muscle.
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