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A Mexican farm laborer temporarily brought into the United States


A German submarine


Forcibly remove from office or position


The first position on a beach secured an invading force and used to land further troops and supplies


A secret or illegal movement organized in a country to resist or overthrow the government


A general and unanimous action of approval or nomination by a large public body, without a vote


The systematic extermination or killing of an entire people


A metal-tubed weapon from which armor-piercing rockets are electronically fired


A U.S. minority that was forced into concentration camps during World War II

War Production Board

A federal agency that coordinated U.S. industry and successfully mobilized the economy to produce vast quantities of military supplies


Women's units of the army and navy during World War II


Mexican-American workers brought into the United States to provide an agricultural labor supply

Rosie the Riveter

Symbolic personification of female laborers who took factory jobs in order to sustain U.S. production during World War II


The federal agency established to guarantee opportunities for African-American employment in World War II industries


U.S.-owned Pacific archipelago seized by Japan in the early months of World War II

Battle of Midway

Crucial naval battle of June 1942, in which U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz blocked the Japanese attempt to conquer a strategic island near Hawaii

Unconditional Surrender

Controversial U.S.-British demand on Germany and Japan that substituted for a "second front"


Site of 1943 Roosevelt-Churchill conference in North Africa, at which the Big Two planned the invasion of Italy and further steps in the Pacific war


Iranian capital where Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to plan D-Day in coordination with Russian strategy against Hitler in the East


The beginning of the Allied invasion of France in June 1944

Battle of the Bulge

The December 1944 German offensive that marked Hitler's last chance to stop the Allied advance

Iwo Jima and Okinawa

The last two heavily defended Japanese islands conquered by the United States in 1945

Atomic Bomb

The devastating new weapon used by the United States against Japan in August 1945

Henry J. Kaiser

Leading American industrialist and shipbuilder during World War II

John L. Lewis

Tough head of the United Mine Workers, whose work stoppages precipitated antistrike laws

A. Philip Randolph

Head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters whose threatened march on Washington opened job opportunities for blacks during World War II


Site of serious racial disturbance during World War II

Jiang Jieshi

U.S. ally who resisted Japanese advances in China during World War II

Douglas MacArthur

Commander of the U.S. army in the Pacific during World War II, who fulfilled his promised to return to the Philippines

Chester W. Nimitz

Commander of the U.S. naval forces in the Pacific and brilliant strategist of the "island-hopping" campaign

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Commander of the Allied military assault against Hitler in North Africa and France

Winston Churchill

Allied leader who met with FDR to plan strategy at Casablanca and Teheran

Joseph Stalin

The Allied leader who constantly pressured the United States and Britain to open a "second front" against Hitler

Thomas Dewey

Republican presidential nominee in 1944 who failed in his effort to deny FDR a fourth term

Henry A. Wallace

FDR's liberal vice president during most of World War II, dumped from the ticket in 1944

Harry S. Truman

Inconspicuous former senator from Missouri who was suddenly catapulted to national and world leadership on April 12, 1945

Albert Einstein

German-born physicist who helped persuade Roosevelt to develop the atomic bomb


Japanese emperor who was allowed to stay on his throne, despite unconditional surrender policy

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