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Human Growth and Development Final
Terms in this set (80)
If a child is demonstrating difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning, or mathematical abilities, the child is exhibiting __________.
specific learning disorders
The causes of learning disorders are generally attributed to __________.
brain dysfunction due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors
Which term refers to a learning disability marked by inattention, impulsiveness, a low tolerance for frustration, and a great deal of inappropriate activity?
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
Which term refers to a child's capacity to take multiple aspects of a situation into account?
When a child initially records information in a form usable to memory it is called __________.
Which term refers to an individual's understanding of the processes that underlie memory?
What did Lev Vygotsky call the level at which a child can almost, but not quite, understand or perform a task?
zone of proximal development
Which term refers to an understanding of one's own use of language?
Which psychologist adopted a pragmatic, trial-and-error approach to psychological measurement that continues to serve as the predominant approach to test construction today?
Robert Sternberg proposed a __________, that divides intellectual functioning into different types of information processing.
triarchic theory of intelligence
Which theorist proposed the notion that middle childhood is a time of focus on meeting the challenges presented by the world?
Parents can help break the cycle of low self-esteem in a child by using a(n) __________ child-rearing style.
Which theorist proposed that people progress through a series of moral reasoning stages?
Which theorist proposed a three-stage theory of moral development for females?
Which attribute is the centerpiece of friendship during the ages of 8 to 10 years?
According to developmental psychologist Kenneth Dodge, successful __________ proceeds through a series of steps that correspond to the child's information processing strategies.
social problem solving
__________ is the period during which parents and children jointly control children's behavior.
Roles and expectations in a blended family can sometimes be unclear, a situation referred to as __________.
Which term refers to the use of strategies for solving social conflicts in ways that are satisfactory both to oneself and to others?
social problem solving
During the middle-childhood years, which phenomenon occurs?
Parents remain the major influence in their children's lives.
Which gland signals the brain and other glands in children's bodies to begin producing sex hormones?
Male sex hormones are called __________, and female sex hormones are called __________ .
Which contributor is the most likely reason for adolescent impulsivity and risky behavior?
a biologically immature prefrontal cortex
According to Jean Piaget, the developmental stage during which people acquire the ability to think abstractly is called the __________.
formal operational stage
According to Piaget, what do adolescents rely on during the formal operational stage of cognitive development that helps them reason differently than children in the concrete operations stage?
The model of cognitive development that seeks to identify the way that individuals take in, use, and store information is called __________.
the information processing perspective
Which term refers to the knowledge that people have about their own thinking processes?
Which developmental stage immediately follows childhood and precedes adulthood?
A pattern of change occurring over several generations is called a __________.
The most common nutritional concern during adolescence is __________.
The combination of race and gender simultaneously affecting an adolescent's self-esteem is called __________.
According to Erik Erikson, the developmental period during which teenagers seek to determine what is unique and distinctive about themselves is called __________.
identity versus identity-confusion
According to James Marcia, which category of identity development leads to the greatest psychological health, achievement motivation, and moral reasoning ability in adolescents?
According to James Marcia, which category of identity development leads to "rigid strength," authoritarian behavior, and a high need for social approval?
According to James Marcia, which category of identity development leads to adolescents living with relatively high anxiety and psychological conflict?
Which U.S. societal model views individual cultural identities as needing to be integrated into a unified culture?
cultural assimilation model
The desire to have independence and a sense of control over one's life is called __________.
Because of the adolescent's development of __________, the balance of power in the relationship between parents and adolescent becomes more __________ toward the end of adolescence.
Groups of people with whom one compares oneself are called __________.
Which model suggests that U.S. society is made up of diverse, coequal cultural groups that should preserve their cultural features?
pluralistic society model
Which term is used to describe the natural physical decline brought about by aging?
Which body part continues to exhibit growth in both size and weight during early adulthood?
Which term refers to physical declines brought about by environmental factors stemming from an individual's behavioral choices?
What is the name of the field of study that investigates the relationship among the brain, immune system, and psychological factors with regard to stress-related events?
How do the theories of cognitive development proposed by Gisela Labouvie-Vief and Jean Piaget compare?
Labouvie-Vief proposed a stage of postformal thought, whereas Piaget thought cognitive development was complete at the stage of formal operations.
What did developmental psychologist K. Warner Schaie call the first stage of cognitive development, encompassing all of childhood and adolescence?
When a person uses information that she or he has been taught to solve problems in a rational way, Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory of intelligence would suggest that person was demonstrating what kind of intelligence?
As people age, there is a need for consistency and stabilization in their life. However, this change in attitude can reduce issues regarding risk-taking behavior and force people to acquire the ability to support their family. What is this phenomenon called?
What was the landmark legislation that mandated full access for people in wheelchairs to public establishments such as stores, office buildings, hotels, and theaters?
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Which term is used to describe a physical or emotional response to events that threaten or challenge us?
__________ is a culturally determined psychological timepiece providing a sense of whether we have reached the major benchmarks of life at the appropriate time.
The social clock
Which broad pattern did psychologist Ravenna Helson identify in her research of women's social roles?
Both women who chose to focus on family and women who chose to focus on career generally demonstrated positive changes in personality development.
According to Erik Erikson's psychosocial theory of development, the period from post-adolescence into the early 30s is called __________.
the intimacy-versus-isolation stage
According to the triangular theory, when two people share a loving, sexually vibrant, long-term relationship, it is called __________.
According to the triangular theory, fatuous love develops when __________ are present.
passion and commitment
The tendency to marry someone who is similar in age, race, education, or religion is referred to as __________.
Psychologist George Vaillant proposed that between the ages of 20 and 40, young adults become centered on their careers, entering a developmental stage called __________.
According to Eli Ginzberg's career choice theory, the stage that spans adolescence, when people begin to think in pragmatic terms about the requirements of various jobs, is called __________.
the tentative period
According to Ginzberg's career choice theory, the stage that occurs in early adulthood, when people begin to explore specific career options and narrow their choices, is called the __________.
Whose theory regarding career choice and personality traits has been validated and used as the foundation for "job quizzes" that people take to see what occupations they might enjoy?
In which parts of the body would a person likely lose strength during middle adulthood?
back and leg muscles
Which change in vision occurs during middle adulthood?
decline in distance perception
The loss of ability to hear high-pitched, high-frequency sounds is known as __________.
Which sex-related problem faces men during middle adulthood?
Which chronic disease typically emerges during middle adulthood?
Which major consequence is produced by stress?
indirect health-related behaviors
Intelligence that reflects information processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory is called __________.
Intelligence that represents the accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that people have learned through experience is called __________.
People are most likely to recall information in environments that are similar to those in which they initially learned it, by capitalizing on __________.
the encoding specificity phenomenon
Using memory skills such as getting better organized, paying attention, using visualization strategies, and rehearsing information for later retrieval, are all considered __________.
Which approach to personality development is based on fairly universal stages tied to a sequence of age-related crises?
__________ propose that it is the particular events in an adult's life, rather than age per se, that determine the course of personality development.
Life events models
Erik Erikson suggested that middle adulthood encompasses a period marked by __________, where a person reflects on whether she or he is making a contribution to family and community.
generativity versus stagnation
Which psychologist developed the "seasons of life" theory, where men in their early 40s are in a period of transition and crisis?
Which developmental psychologists argued that there is a substantial change in personality over time, and that change follows a set, predictable pattern?
Erik Erikson and Daniel Levinson
Which developmental psychologists argued that personality is quite stable and continuous throughout one's lifetime?
Paul Costa and Robert McCrae
Which traits comprise the "Big Five" dimensions of personality?
neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness
Which "Big Five" personality dimension tends to decline somewhat from early adulthood to middle adulthood?
Which group is most likely to experience feelings of loneliness and increased physical and mental health problems?
divorced men in general
Globally, __________ women experience some form of violent victimization during their lives.
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