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Week 10 - Mutation and Cancer
Terms in this set (31)
If every cell contains the entire genome, how do cells specialize?
by turning on a subset of specific genes
Which statement is false?
Mitosis occurs during wound healing.
Mitosis is required for embryonic development.
Mitosis is part of the process used to repair damaged tissues.
(X)Mitosis is required to halve the chromosome number of cells.
Mitosis occurs regularly in our body.
A healthy cell spends most of its lifetime in
The process of _____ is used to replace damaged or worn-out cells.
What is the purpose of cell cycle checkpoints?
to ensure that cell cycle phases proceed only when the cell is ready
What may happen when a mutation changes the amino acid sequence of a protein?
The protein may become less effective, more effective, or altogether nonfunctional
Cancer consists of too much
A mutation would most likely be inherited if it is located in a ____ cell.
A proto-oncogene is a gene that
tells the cell to go through the cell cycle
A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that
tells the cell when to stop the cell cycle.
Which of the following is an example of cells undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis?
a new embryo growing
a tree producing new branches
dead skin cells being replaced
a wound healing over with a scar
(All of the above.)
A cell divides before properly completing mitosis. Which of the following would be a likely result?
two cells with either extra or missing chromosomes
What is the difference between a somatic cell mutation and a germ-line mutation?
Somatic cell mutations do not involve DNA, but germ-line mutations do
When would you need a gene that can stop the cell cycle?
when a mutation occurred and the cell needed time to repair it before continuing
when there was no immediate need for more cells
A specific gene, called GRAB, prevents a cell from entering mitosis if there are any signs of DNA damage. This means that GRAB would be a type of
cell cycle checkpoint
Cell division is used for all of the following EXCEPT
replacing blood cells that have died.
(x)production of hormones.
growth of a single cell into a baby.
growth of a child into an adult.
replacing skin cells separated by a paper cut.
Which of the following would most likely increase an individual's risk of cancer?
a mutation in a gene for a DNA repairing enzyme
What are some differences and some similarities between tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes?
Mutations that cause cancer typically occur in both.
Both influence the cell cycle.
Oncogenes are proto-oncogenes that have been mutated and became permanently active.
Cells are dividing all the time in oncogenes.
The function of tumor suppressor genes is to produce proteins that typically pause the dividing of cells, repair the DNA that has been damaged, or initiate apoptosis.
In their nonmutant states, both tumor suppressor genes and (proto-)oncogenes are important for proper cell cycle progression. In their mutant states, both contribute to the development and progression of cancer. Wild-type tumor suppressor genes act to prevent the cell cycle from progressing inappropriately (e.g., when there is rampant DNA damage). When mutated, tumor suppressor genes can no longer pause the cell cycle when necessary, and cells with DNA damage may continue to divide. Normal proto-oncogenes act to promote cell division in response to appropriate signals to divide. When proto-oncogenes are activated by mutation (to oncogenes), they continuously "push" cells to divide, even in the absence of growth-promoting signals.
Cellular differentiation, or cell specialization, results from ___.
the "turning off" of some genes and the "turning on" others
Explain how differential gene expression can cause different cells to have different shapes and functions.
Differential gene expression can cause different cells to have different shapes and functions because it determines the cell's specific components, which defines its characteristics.
Which stage of the cell cycle is the lengthiest?
Following mitosis and cytokinesis, daughter cells
are genetically identical to the parent cell
Relative to one of your liver cells, one of your skin cells has
the same genome and a different pattern of gene expression
If you cut yourself, the damaged cells are
replaced by surrounding cells
Different versions of a gene are called alleles; a mutation in a gene can create an allele
Which of the following statements is always TRUE?
A change in the DNA may change a protein's shape an function
Which of the following is a known mutagen?
Cigarette smoke, sunlight, charred meat cooked at high temperatures, x-rays
required for normal cell division.
In normal cells tumor suppressors are
required for DNA repair or programmed cell death.
Cancer may be caused by
A checkpoint problem; failure in apoptosis; unregulated cell division; failure in DNA repair mechanisms
Cell cycle checkpoints detect and control
DNA content, signals that promote cell division, DNA damage, and proper chromosome alignment.
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