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Psychology of Religion
PSY 336 Exam #2
Terms in this set (117)
- interdisciplinary body of psychology practices and traditions that study the interaction between conscious and unconscious
- making unconscious conscious
id, ego, superego
According to Freud what makes up the psyche
According to Freud, this part of the mind is responsible for instinctual parts that contains sexual and aggressive drives and hidden memories.
The id is the primitive and instinctive component of personality. It consists of all the inherited (i.e., biological) components of personality present at birth, including the sex (life) instinct - Eros (which contains the libido), and the aggressive (death) instinct - Thanatos.
The _______ develops to mediate between the unrealistic id and the external real world. It is the decision-making component of personality. Ideally, the ego works by reason, whereas the id is chaotic and unreasonable.
The ego is 'that part of the id which has been modified by the direct influence of the external world.'
The superego incorporates the values and morals of society which are learned from one's parents and others. It develops around the age of 3 - 5 years during the phallic stage of psychosexual development.
The superego's function is to control the id's impulses, especially those which society forbids, such as sex and aggression. It also has the function of persuading the ego to turn to moralistic goals rather than simply realistic ones and to strive for perfection
the realistic part that mediates between the desires of the id and superego
According to Freud what role does the ego play in the psyche?
the moral conscious
According to Freud, what role does the superego play in the psyche?
- A part of the psychic energy
- investment of libidnal (sexual) energy in ideas, persons, or things
- these objects ______ are of the id are countered by 'anti-______'-forces employed by the ego in the process of repression
typically occurs under hypnosis
part of the psychoanalytic theory
the elimination of negative emotions, affect, or behaviors, associated with trauma
address repressed memories
disbelief or lack of belief in the existence of God or gods
a mental disorder marked by the anxiety or fear; less serve than psychosis because it does not involve detachment from reality
the theory that suggests that early experiences are very important in personality development
wholeness is important for each individual
understanding of individual experience with a recognition of broader truths and experiences
Jungian Psychology: wholeness through integration of the unconscious
the idea that mental (psychic) events do not occur by chance but always have an underlying cause that can be uncovered by analysis
According to Freud, this is a primary belief motivated by a concept of desire
_________ can be misleading BUT does not necessarily mean that the concept is necessarily wrong
symptomatic mental disorders such as paranoia, schizophrenia, and major depression and having physiological conditions as senile and delirium
is not in touch with reality
education to reality
Freud aims to strengthen the ego as a matter of therapy, for mental disorders
in psychoanalytic theory, any of a group of mental processes that enables the mind to reach compromise solutions to conflict that the mind is unable to resolve
provoked by concealed internal drives/feeling that threaten to lower self-esteem
2. reaction formation
What are the seven common defense mechanisms?
Thanatos (death) instinct
the goal of all life is death
freud believed that people typically channel their death instincts outward
ex: PTSD --> people who experience traumatic events often reenacted them
from this freud concluded people have unconscious desire to die but that the life largely temper this wish
a phenomenon in psychotherapy in which there is an unconscious redirection of feelings from one person to another
understanding _____ is an important piece of psychotherapeutic work
to Jung, this represented the whole self, and the circular shape provided for endless purposes in the treatment scenario
this theory is based on the archetypes he identified that represent a collective unconscious
Structural elements of the human psyche... manifest our psyche
systems of readiness for action and at the same time images and emotions
symbols are ________/representations of personality that are myths and manifest through history from our ancestors
anima and animus.... anima is female part of mans personality & animus is male part in female personality
What part of Jung's archetypes does this describe?: the aspects of biological sex that are apparent in opposite sex
to become who you are you have to embrace your opposite sex side
everyone has a little masculinity and femininity in them
What part of Jung's archetypes does this describe?: the "dark side" within all of us, similar to the id in freudian theory
what part of Jung's archetypes does this suit most: a united experience of being in-touch with one's mind, body, and spirit
a mode of psychological orientation where the movement of energy is toward inner world
inward directed psychic energy
the portrayal of gods and spiritual powers beyond and in the world as having human appearance and qualities
the dark side of someones personality (including sexual)
according to Jung, meeting with personal _______ is moral effort
this _____ feature is equaled to Freudian personal unconscious because they both compromise everything one represses because its rejected by super ego
anima and animus
according to Jung, what are the two primary anthropomorphic archetypes of the unconscious mind?
moral effort is needed to consciously view your shadow because the shadow is a moral problem
to become conscious of it you must recognize dark aspects of your personality
according to Jung, what is the only way to be conscious of the shadow? why?
the public image of someone/their mask
Jung feels this archetype is the individuals way of adaption to or the manner he assures in dealing with the world
the result of social adaption that plays an important role in dealing with peers
the archetypes of wholeness and the regulating center of the psyche; a transpersonal power that transcends of the psyche
expresses the unity of the psyche as a whole
the unification of the conscious and unconscious
the view that the existence of God, of divine or the supernatural is unknownable
humans can not know of the existence of anything beyond the phenomena of their existence
a union of opposites (male and females couple; divine couple)
in combination the anima and animus are know as _________
this term denotes a pair of psychological opposites whether in conjunction opposition
a process informed by the archetypal wholeness, which in turn on a vital relationship between ego and unconscious
a process of psychological differentiation, having for its goal the development of the individual personality
events are meaningful coincidences if they occur with no casual relationship yet seem to be meaningfully related
acasual connecting principle
a phenomenon where an event in the outside world coincides meaningfully with a psychological state of mind
part of the mind containing memories and impulses of which the individual is not aware
a structural later of the human psyche containing inherited elements distinct from personal unconscious
2. personal unconscious
3. collective unconscious
what are the 3 main components that make up the psyche according to Jung?
a form of religion, islam or protestant christianity, that upholds belief in the strict, literal interpretation of scripture
the desire to close the difference/destroy the barriers between us and god
three tear stage-you trying to reach the divine and trying to get not the same levels
problem of patriarchal monotheism
the science of phenomenon as distinct from that of the nature of being
an approach that concentrates on the study of conscious and the objects of direct experience
an estimate or forecast of a future situation or trend based on a study of present ones
too great or extreme to be expressed or describe in two ....words not to be utterd Jung's unconscious thoughts are ____
having attachment to people or things that persist from childhood to adulthood
freud believed that persistent fixations were due to unresolved issues in previous psychological stages of development
False; Jung views the unconscious in more spiritual way where as Freud sees the unconscious as animalistic, instinctual, or sexual
True or False:
Jung sees the unconscious as animalistic, instinctual, or sexual, and Freud sees the unconscious as spiritual
dreams are ways of communication with your unconscious
dreams serve as a guide to the waking self to achieve wholeness and offer solution to your problems in your waking life
According to Jung what role does dreams play in terms of your unconscious?
your sense of self and how you portray the world
How does Jung view the ego?
things can be viewed as opposites
ex: good/evil, male/female, love/hate
Explain the main part of Jung's theory:
contains aspects of yourself that you wish not to acknowledge
more primitive, somewhat uncultured, and a little awkward
In opposition of the go, how does Jung view the "counter ego" aka the shadow?
the meaning of our dreams is a personal judgement and is up to you on how you interpret them
you possess the necessary tools to interpret your dreams
guide you through personal growth and help achieve full potential
From Jung's point of view how are we supposed to interpret dreams?
According to Jung, dreams are part of a phenomon called...
5. divine child
6. wise old man/woman
7. great mother
According to Jung, your dream are personal and can be made of personal experiences... these personal experiences touch on universal symbols.
These personal symbols are called ___(1)___. What are these 7 symbols?
Freud- using logos as a type of reason
Jung: aminus conjoined with ethos
Frankl: used with logotherapy in search for meaning
Explain how Freud, Jung, and Frankl use logos: (they all use it differently)
at the core of this theory is the belief that man's primary motivational force is search for meaning
therapy that helps one look for meaning to fill a void
Freud's Drive theory
Believed that all human behavior is driven by innate instincts or drives
drives can either be self-preservation (breathing, eating, etc) or species-preservative (sexuality)
libido- the psychic energy that emanates from sexual drives; always seeks pleasure
all done to reduce inner tension
True or False:
Libido is not just sexual energy, it is creativity and much more... things done to try and reduce pain
Frankl, because his views are based on the idea that people have to have a drive/motivation to have meaning
Who would you say has opposite views of Freud? Why?
The inability to find or create meaning in life, leading to feelings of emptiness, alienation, futility, and aimlessness. Most existentialists have considered meaninglessness to be the quintessential symptom or ailment of the modern age.
What are these theories apart of?:
- Instinctual theory
(biological pattern of behavior)
- Incentive theory
(behavior learning through & reinforcement environment)
- Arousal theory
(maintain optimal level)
- Humanistic theory
(Maslow's hierarchy of needs)
homeostasis (- psychological equilibrium)
According to Freud the goal of psychoanalysis is...
intellect; achievement of human development
- knowledge: reason, truth, and logos
- brotherly love and reduction of suffering
- independence and responsibility
What is the aim of human development for Freud?
individuation; surrender to a higher power
- God: the unconscious
- religion: psychological phenomenon
- unconscious: religious phenomenon
What is the aim of human development for Jung?
Who are complexes most important to?
The founder of psychoanalysis
Who believed that we need repress our desires and not act on any of them because we are in society with other people
we invited gods to soothe our pain in this life and to reward or compensate us for our troubles in the afterlife
According to Freud why do we repress our true feelings and desires for Gods?
the belief in one original Heavenly Father, God
when you believe in something because you want it to be true... because there are bad things we want a one good pure good to believe in
it is a product of wish fulfillment.
(can be proven or disproven) there need to be impirical evidence but that's impossible)
how does Freud define illusion
True or False:
Freud believes that science has revealed a godless world, we need to stick to facts
Freud- unconscious holds repressed thoughts, feelings, and desires, traumatic things you do not want to remember... neurosis start to take place if you have too much of these repressed thoughts and traumas left in your unconscious.... it then starts to manifest your everyday life. (trash can analogy)
Jung- believed your unconscious mind was just as active as your unconscious mind. The big difference between conscious mind dealt with your thoughts, logic, and reasonable things and you unconscious digested the unsayable things like emotions or things you can not put into words.. (2 cow stomachs analogy.. digest different things)
What is the difference between Freud's view on the unconscious and Jung's view on the unconscious
All men want to kill their father and have sexual relations with their mother
What did Freud say about oedipus?
It was flawed and can not be applied to every boy/man..
Everyone has their own Archetypes... there are so many roles that can be played in life. All people brew up life experiences that make up their own overwhelming archetypes that help us find out who we are
What did Jung say about Freud's theory of Oedipus? What did he believe?
FALSE: archetypes can not be perceived through existence but can be recognized only though images/symbols
true or false:
According to Jung, archetypes can be perceived through existence
"there are as many archetypes as there are situations inline. Endless repetition engraved these experiences..."
According to Jung how many archetypes are there?
"a reservoir of the experiences of our species"
input: emotions, feelings, and experiences
output: symbols, ritual (Jung.. ex: funerals)
what goes into/makes up the collective unconscious? and what does the collective unconscious spit out?
Who believed that we all have the humanistic instincts (example: if we touch a hot stove we pull away)
the path to wholeness
'soul' 'spirit' 'mind' - spirit principle
holds thoughts behavior feelings and emotions
according to Jung, the _______, is divided into three parts: conscious, personal unconscious, and collective unconscious
works in images
Conscious - ego
personal unconscious - complexes
collective unconscious - archetypes
If the psyche was shaped like an egg... what would the layers be from the inside out? (start with the center)
What part of the psyche does this describe according to Jung?:
persons field of awareness, center is called the ego...
helps determine the content of the personal unconscious
the egos repressed emotions
these subliminal thoughts/events occupy the _____ and still can influence the persons personality
complexes are how it can affect the personality..
Function in the personal unconscious...
sub personalities, have a lot of power over ones personality (stuck on an idea or thought that influences your actions)
other may notice these complexes on you but you may not even notice them yourself
What are complexes and what do they do according to Jung?
Complexes derive from childhood traumas
What are complexes and what do they do according to Freud?
Dreams and fantasies
composed of universal elements that are inherited
this is where archetypes are found
called collective _______ because unlike the personal unconscious its not made up of individual content but universal content/occurences
Archetypes act differently within people and affect people differently, this creates _______ of a person
failure to be able to unacknowledged your unconscious and all the bad/messed up things in there will result in inability to find
this is the goal of the psyche
archetypes: God, Devil, Mother, Hero, Death
collective archetypes: symbols, dreams, myths, art
Examples of archetypes and collective archetypes:
mystical agnostic (submission to a higher power)
Freud: Godless Jew
Jung: _________ ________
dynamic experience - seizures and control the human subject
conscious experience of the archetype of self
awesome and fascinating experice
fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God
freedom of will
(free to chose an attitude towards life condition)
meaning of life the will to meaning
(can be found in (the motivated to
any situation). find meaning)
frankly meaning and freedom of will diagram
- lie on couch and say disagreeable things
- introspective, retrospective
- will to pleasure
- man as animal (instinct driven)
- stand up and hear disagreeable things
- future-oriented, meaning making
- will to meaning
- man as human
-will to meaning
Frankl's view on pyschoanalysis vs logotherapy
- it is not our life conditions that confine us but our freedom of choice- to choose to be beaten down or to rise up
What did Frankl's experience remind him?
False; camp prisoners who focused on things to live for survived more often than those who did not
True or False; Frankl believed that survivors from the Holocaust had no chance regardless of their hopeful beliefs
Positive model- offers opportunity and growth
pointless suffering is not positive
What kind of pain-suffering model did Frankl believe in?
through creativity of work, experiencing something/someone, and our attitude towards unavoidable suffering
How do we discover meaning according to Frankl?
noodynamics emerge from existential problems... man does not need homeostasis
Noodynamics Vs Homeostasis: Frankl
confronting your fears can
mass neurotic syndrome
depression, aggressione, addiction which is caused by existential vacuum
suffering, guilt, death
what is the tragic triad?
Frankl's defintion of an acceptance of the tragic triad and triumph over and in spite of it
Meaning larger than man and logic; may be religious
achievement of personality
What does Carl Jung describe here?:
"....a life strives for individual realization of its own law"
"personality is an act of the greatest courage in the face of life"
person must be able to reach into their personality and acknowledge their bad/worst traits
to reach personality acheivement, according to jung, what must take place?
____________ is something that represent a more complex meaning through image
ex: the color blue could mean sad, cool, or represents the sky
part of the collective unconscious (Jung)
_________ has less of a meaning than a symbol... ex: red octagon means stop
1. who believed western and modern Europe nation have ignored the unconscious/irrational (disassociated their minds)
2. and who believed this divide has led to suffering and meaningless s life?
the patients relationship to collective unconscious through dreams complexes
what did Jung's analytical psychology focus on?
what is the "royal road"
Freud believed in ___(1)____ Interpretation and Jung believed in __(2)___ interpretation of dream content
not just memories, our dreams contains thoughts our conscious has not reached yet
according to jung what makes our dreams?
True or False: Jung believes that your unconscious speaks through symbols
large # of archetypes can represent (ex: hero)
external truths (ex: a cross)
Who believes this:
nature can be dangerous... and when the nature is dangerous you need to subscribe to a culture.... when you subscribe to a culture there are rules you need to abide by... this makes a burden for you..
religious idea is the greatest idea that get people to stay in line
religious ideas can help people with anxiety
God is more so a relationship with your parents not so much an entity
religious ideas are unique because they do not have very god evidence
they are powerful because they are illusions
science and religion views are different because science can change and religion in the same infinite belief forever
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