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26 terms

Bone

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Haversian system
microscopic, structural unit of compact bone also called the osteon
Diaphysis
the main (mid) section of a long bone
Epiphyseal plate
cartilaginous area at the ends of long bones where lengthwise growth takes place in the immature skeleton (in metaphysis)
Metaphysis
growth zone between epiphysis and diaphysis during development of a long bone
Epiphysis
end of long bone
Spongy bone
Site of hemopoiesis (RBC development)
Compact bone
Holds yellow bone marrow, which contains adipose cells for fat storage
Osteocyte
mature bone cells located within lacunae. main cells in bone tissue and maintain its daily metabolism, such as the exchange of nutrients and wastes with the blood. do not undergo cell division. lower activity rates. help maintain matrix.
Osteoblast
A dividing bone-forming cell that secretes collagen and organic compounds. Form lamellae, becomes enclosed in lacuna, then differentiates into an osteocyte.
Osteoclast
A phagocytic-like bone cell that breaks down bone matrix to release calcium and phosphate into the bloodstream. Burrow tunnels called Haversian canals
Lamellae
concentric rings of bone matrix radiate out from central canal.
Haversian canal
one of a network of tubes running through compact bone that contains blood vessels and nerves
Lacuna
a small space containing an osteocyte in bone or chondrocyte in cartilage
Canaliculi
Hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and the central canal
Periosteum
Outer most fibrous layer that supplies blood and nerves to the bone
Synovial fluid
Lubricates, nourishes, and keeps the joint moveable
Ligaments
tissues that connect bone to bone and strengthen joints
Axial skeleton
Composed of bones that form main longitudinal axis of animal's body (rib, vertebra, skull, sternum, etc)
Appendicular skeleton
Limb or fin bones and bones that connect them to axial skeleton (Femur, radius, ulna, humerous, etc)
Joint
Where two or more bones come together
Fused joints
Not used for movement (skull)
Pivot joint
Allow rotational movement (shaking head no)
Hinge joint
Allow movement in one plane (bending of elbow)
Ball-and-socket joint
Allow movement in several planes (moving hip)
Endoskeleton
Provide support and protection, but not protect the body surface. Can protect internal organs
Exoskeleton
hard protective structure developed outside the body, as the shell of a lobster