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Medical Vocab - Chapter 16
Terms in this set (99)
"endocrin/o" means ____________
"adrenocortic/o" means __________
"thyr/o" or "thyroid/o" means _________
"adren/o" or "adrenal/o" means _________
"parathyr/o" or "parathyroid/o" means _________
"hypophys" means ___________
"pituitar" means ____________
"insul/o" means _____________
Excess sugar in the urine
ADH (antidiuretic hormone; vasopressin) is produced by the ________ gland.
Overgrowth of bone and soft tissue, especially in the hands, feet, and face, caused by an excess of growth hormone in an adult
PRL (prolactin) is produced by the ________ gland.
abnormally low level of glucose in the blood
A saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone that contains the pituitary gland.
Hypofunction of the anterior pituitary (panhypopituitarism), usually due to an infarction
Oxytocin is produced by the ________ gland.
high blood glucose levels intake that may signal borderline diabetes mellitus
impaired glucose tolerance
Hypersecretion of thyroid hormone causes ___________.
Progesterone is produced by the ___________
Parathyroid hormone is produced by the ________.
GH (growth hormone or somatotropin) is produced by the ________ gland.
A benign tumor of the pituitary gland
Removal of a pituitary tumor through the sphenoid sinus
Calculation based on certain laboratory measurements that indicates the amount of unbound thyroxine in the blood
free thyroxine index
A condition resulting from an excess of hormones from the adrenal cortex. It is associated with obesity, weakness, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and hirsutism (excessive hair growth).
Sudden massive degeneration of the pituitary gland associated with a pituitary tumor.
A chronic thyroiditis of autoimmune origin
A method for measuring very small amounts of a substance, especially hormones, in blood plasma using radioactively labeled hormones and specific antibodies.
A condition resulting from an overdose of insulin, causing hypoglycemia
A small gland in the brain. Its function in humans is not clear, but it appears to regulate behavior and sexual development in response to environmental light.
Irritability and spasms of muscles; may be caused by low blood calcium and other factors
A test that measures the binding of glucose to hemoglobin during the lifespan of a red blood cell.
glycated hemoglobin test
A site on the cell membrane to which a substance, such as a hormone, attaches.
A neoplasm of a gland.
Small glands on the back of the thyroid that acts to increase blood calcium levels
A disease resulting from deficiency of adrenocortical hormones. It is marked by darkening of the skin, weakness, and alternations in salt and water balance.
Sex hormones are produced by the ___________
FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) is produced by the _____________ gland.
Clusters of endocrine cells in the pancreas that secrete hormones which regulate sugar metabolism.
Overactitivy of the adrenal cortex resulting from excess production of ACTH by the pituitary.
A sudden onset of the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis occurring in patients with the disease who are untreated or poorly treated.
ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) is produced by the __________ gland.
Hyposecretion of thyroid hormone causes ___________ in children.
Hyposecretion of growth hormone causes _________ in children.
Test that measures the main protein that binds T4 in the blood
thyroxine binding globulin test
Underactivity of the entire pituitary gland
A group of hormones produced throughout the body that has a variety of effects, including stimulation of uterine contractions and regulation of blood pressure, blood clotting, and inflammation.
Hyposecretion of aldosterone causes ___________
Protrusion of the eyeballs as seen in Graves disease.
Visualization of the thyroid gland following administration of radioactive iodine
Measurement of glucose levels in blood plasma after administration of a challenge dose of glucose to a fasting patient
oral glucose tolerance test
Measurement of glucose in the blood after a fast of at least 8 hours
fasting plasma glucose
A usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla or other structures containing chromaffin cells (cells that stain with chromium salts). It results in increased production of epinephine and norepinephrine.
The specific tissue on which a specific hormone acts.
Hypersecretion of aldosterone causes ____________.
An endocrine gland on either side of the larynx and upper trachea; it secretes hormones that affect metabolism and growth and a hormone that regulates calcium balance.
Thyroid hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are produced by the ________ gland
A hormone made from lipids and including the sex hormones and the hormones of the adrenal cortex.
Pertaining to a ductless gland that secretes directly into the blood
A portion of the brain that controls the pituitary gland and is active in maintaining homeostasis
Acidosis (increased acidity of body fluids) caused by an excess of ketone bodies, as in diabetes mellitus.
A disorder of glucose metabolism caused by deficiency of insulin production or failure of the tissues to respond to insulin. Type I in juvenile-onset (insulin-dependent); type II is adult-onset (non-insulin-dependent)
Degeneration of bone caused by excess production of hormone from the parathyroid glands.
von Recklinghausen disease
Enlargement of the thyroid gland. May be toxic or non-toxic (caused by iodine deficiency).
A test that measures thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine as an evaluation of thyroid function
radioactive iodine uptake test
Hypersecretion of antidiuretic hormone causes ___________.
syndrome of inappropriate ADH
Insulin is produced by the _________.
A hereditary disorder that causes tumors in several endocrine glands.
multiple endocrine neoplasia
condition resulting from overactivity of the thyroid gland. Symptoms include anxiety, irritability, weight loss, and sweating. the main example of this condition is Graves disease
Hypersecretion of growth hormone causes __________ in children.
A small endocrine gland at the base of the brain. The anterior lobe secretes growth hormone and the hormones that stimulate other glands; the posterior lobe releases ADH and oxytocin manufactured in the hypothalamus.
Hyposecretion of insulin causes _________.
A bone at the base of the skull that houses the pituitary gland
A secretion of an endocrine gland which travels in the blood and has a regulatory effect of tissues, organs, or glands
a mood disorder with lethargy, depression, excessive need for sleep, and overeating that generally occurs in winter
seasonal affective disorder
Glucagon is produced by the _________.
Hyposecretion of parythyroid hormone causes _________
Hyperaldosteronism caused by an adrenal tumor
Hypersecretion of insulin causes _________
Excess sugar in the blood
Hyposecretion of cortisol causes ___________.
Hypersecretion of cortisol causes __________
An autoimmune disease resulting in hyperthyroidism. A prominent symptom is exophthalmos.
Estrogens are produced by the __________
A state of hyperglycemia caused by cellular resistance to insulin, as seen in type 2 diabetes, in association with other metabolic disorders
Accumulation of ketone bodies, such as acetone, in the body.
Cortisol (hydrocortisone) is produced by the ________ .
TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) is produced by the ____________ gland.
Testosterone is produced by the _______
A gland on the upper surface of the kidney. The outer region (cortex) secretes steroid hormones; the inner region (medulla) secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepineprine (noradrenaline)
Aldosterone is produced by the ________ .
Hypersecretion of growth hormone causes ____________ in adults.
Overgrowth due to an excess of growth hormone from the pituitary during childhood
A disorder caused by insufficient release of ADH from the posterior pituitary. It results in excessive thirst and production of large amounts of very dilute urine.
Hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone causes _________.
LH (luteinizing hormone), which is called ICSH (interstitial cell-stimulating hormone) is produced by the _____________ gland.
condition caused by overproduction of androgens from the adrenal cortex resulting in masculinization; may be congenital or acquired; usually as a result of an adrenal tumor
Epinephrine is produced by the _________ .
Hyposecretion of antidiuretic hormone causes ____________
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