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the passing of traits from parents to offspring


a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.


the study of how traits are inherited through the actions of alleles


process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell

dominant allele

an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present

punnet square

A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross


what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype (two organisms with the same phenotype can have different genotypes)


a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed


type of cell division where one body cell produces four gametes each containing half the number of chromosomes as a parents body cell


sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait

recessive allele

is hidden whenever the dominant allele is present


offspring of crosses between parents with different traits


having two different alleles for a trait


having two identical alleles for a trait


a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur

amino acids

simple forms of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy


different forms of a gene


deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics

messenger RNA

Type of RNA that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm


change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information


a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid


a substance that is a necessary part of the cells of animals and plants

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