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22 terms

genetics ch 4

STUDY
PLAY
heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offspring
trait
a characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes.
genetics
the study of how traits are inherited through the actions of alleles
fertilization
process in sexual reproduction in which male and female reproductive cells join to form a new cell
dominant allele
an allele whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
punnet square
A chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
phenotype
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype (two organisms with the same phenotype can have different genotypes)
codominance
a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
meiosis
type of cell division where one body cell produces four gametes each containing half the number of chromosomes as a parents body cell
genes
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
recessive allele
is hidden whenever the dominant allele is present
hybrid
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait
probability
a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur
amino acids
simple forms of protein normally used to build tissues or, under some conditions, burned for energy
alleles
different forms of a gene
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
messenger RNA
Type of RNA that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to direct protein synthesis in the cytoplasm
mutation
change in a DNA sequence that affects genetic information
codon
a specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
protein
a substance that is a necessary part of the cells of animals and plants