Everything You Need To Know About The Revolutionary War
Terms in this set (86)
Navigation Acts of 1651
Britain wished to remain a world power. Britain passed laws to maintain control and imposed taxes to raise money such as:
French and Indian War
Known as the Seven Years War in Europe, this was a series of conflicts between France and Great Britain. The war started in 1754 and ended in 1763 after the signing of the First Treaty of Paris.
Proclamation of 1763
Proclaimed that no colonial settlers could live west of the Appalachian Mountains. This angered colonists. Britain did this to keep peace with the Native Americans.
Sugar Act, 1764
This act taxed all sugar and sugar products that were bought.
Stamp Act, 1765
This act required a stamp to be put on every official document. The stamps cost money. The Sons of Liberty particularly called for the repeal of this act.
Quartering Act, 1765
This act required colonists to quarter, or give shelter to, British military officers.
Repeal Stamp Act, 1766
The Sons of Liberty got their wish for the Stamp Act to be repealed.
Declaratory Act, 1766
This act ensured that the King and Parliament had ultimate power over the Thirteen Colonies and that they could pass any laws that they though to seem fit.
Townshend Acts, 1767
These acts dissolved the New York colonial representative assembly. This also let military officers search your home if they suspected you without a warrant, but with a slip of paper called the Writs of Assistance. These acts were repealed in 1770.
Boston Massacre, 1770
This was an event where there was a clash between colonist and British military officers. The colonists taunted the Redcoats, and the Redcoats shot at them. Crispus Attucks was the first man killed.
Tea Act, 1773
This act put a tax on all tea. This angered the Sons of Liberty who protested against this act.
Boston Tea Party, 1773
The Sons of Liberty dressed up as Native Americans and dumped 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor. The British demanded that the tea be paid back and punished the residents of Massachusetts.
Coercive/Intolerable Acts, 1774
These acts known as Coercive in Britain and Intolerable in the colonies were passed to punish Massachusetts after the Boston Tea Party. These acts blockaded Boston Harbor until all the tea was paid back, and because of colonial anger started the First Continental Congress, where colonial representatives promised to boycott British goods with the Non-Importation Agreement, formed a militia, and promised to meet again at the Second Continental Congress.
an official statement from someone in authority that is to be accepted as law
an official or formal conference or council, usually concerned with government or public affairs; the British bicameral legislative body consisting of the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
funds collected by any government (taxes, tariffs) that are appropriated or used for public service (e.g. build roads, maintain army, navy)
a schedule or system of duties imposed by a government, usually on imports but can also be on exports.
to revoke or to do away with a law; to declare a law null and void.
a formally drawn request, often bearing the names of those making the request, that is addressed to a person or group of persons in authority or power, soliciting some favor, right, mercy, or benefit.
something that cannot be surrendered, separated, given away or taken away; the permanent rights of all people dictated by natural law.
to abstain from buying or using.
to house or give shelter to
any army composed of citizens rather than professional soldiers, called up in time of emergency.
an absolute ruler, such as a king with unlimited powers; an autocrat; anyone in charge who acts like a tyrant.
the indiscriminate merciless killing of a number of human beings; any large-scale slaughter; colloquial-an overwhelming defeat in sports
one who will not side with one country or the other; a person who does not choose one cause over another
to take or assume power, position, property, or rights, and hold in possession by force or without right.
to give up or abandon (a plan or policy); to renounce or surrender (something owned or possessed such as a right); to let go (a grasp or a hold)
the corrections of wrongs; to set right; rectify or remedy, often by making compensation for
a professional soldier hired to serve a foreign army; working or done for payment only; motivated by a desire for money; greedy
the encirclement of a fortified place by an opposing armed force intending to take it, usually by blockade and bombardment; surrounding and attacking a fortified place in such a way as to isolate it from help and supplies, for the purpose of lessening the resistance of the defenders
a privately owned ship that a wartime government gives permission to attack and enemy's merchant ships
an overall plan of action; the science of planning and directing large-scale military operations
an agreement or appointment between two or more persons to meet at a certain time or place; also, the meeting itself
large guns or cannons with the ability to attack, kill, and destroy from a distance
King George III
The monarch of Britain during the Revolutionary War. Proclaimed the Proclamation of 1763. Wanted to keep peace with Native Americans after the French & Indian War
The commander of the British Army at Yorktown. Once under siege, he surrendered in what is regarded as the last battle in the war.
A Virginian who was the general of the Continental Army. He previously was a British soldier in the French & Indian War. He was a Founding Father, and eventually became the first president of the United States.
A curious Virginian who founded the University of Virginia after hating William & Mary. He built an estate called Monticello and commanded the first excavation of a Native American mound in Virginia. He was a Founding Father, and eventually was the nation's third president.
A Massachusetts man who at first opposed the use of force against the British. He was considered a moderate, unlike his cousin Samuel, and was a Harvard graduate. He was a Founding Father, and eventually became the second president of this nation.
Another Harvard graduate who used propaganda and fierce words against the British. He inspired many to join the rebels.
He was an influential member of Virginia's House of Burgesses. He made statements such as, "Give me liberty or give me death!" He was an antifederalist who opposed the Constitution.
He was a Boston silversmith who warned Samuel Adams and John Hancock that the British were coming to capture them. Along with William Dawes and Dr. Samuel Prescott he roused the minutemen of the Massachusetts militia which set up the battles of Lexington and Concord.
Considered a genius, this Pennsylvanian convinced the French to fight against the British on the colonies' side. This ultimately helped, as without the French, the siege at Yorktown would've been impossible.
Wrote the pamphlet, Common Sense, to convince neutralists to join the rebels' cause. His writings were influential, and many joined the rebels because of him.
Her real name was Mary Hays. She earned the nickname, Molly Pitcher, because she brought water to tired soldiers.
Marquis de Lafayette
A 19 year-old French nobleman who volunteered in the Continental Army. He quickly rose to high ranks on the battlefield and also took part in the French Revolution.
Olive Branch Petition
A document that asked the King to restore harmony between Britain and the colonies. The King refused, which led the Continental Congress to write the Declaration of Independence.
Declaration of Independence
the document written in 1776 in which the colonies declared independence from Great Britain
Battles of Lexington and Concord
Also known as the Shot Heard 'Round the World, this battle was fought by the Massachusetts colonial militia and the British soldiers who were coming to confiscate weapons and arrest Samuel Adams and John Hancock. Surprisingly, the Massachusetts militia (minutemen) beat the British.
George Rogers Clark
A frontiersman famous for his victories against the British at Vincennes and Kaskaskia. This weakened British troops in the Northwestern Territories which Britain eventually ceded in the 1783 Second Treaty of Paris.
He was the first person shot during the Boston Massacre. He was half Native American, half African American, and was a dockworker. Of the five who died in the Boston Massacre, he is the most famous.
A woman who dressed up as a man with the fake name Robert who went to fight in the war. At the time, women were not allowed to fight. After being wounded, the doctors discovered she was a woman impersonating a man after removing a piece of shrapnel from her leg. She was honored at West Point.
A soldier who spied on the British during the war. He was famous for his last words before he was hung, "I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country." He was designated the state hero of Connecticut and his alma mater was Yale.
He was a soldier during the Revolutionary War, who drew attention for his Quaker faith, since Quakers are pacifists. He was the lowest rank in the battlefield at the beginning of the war; by the end, he was one of George Washington's most trusted advisors.
She was an African slave, born in Senegal, and was the first African-American poet and first African-American woman to publish her works. The family she was bonded to taught her how to read and write, and encouraged her poetry. She was praised by many.
Albany Plan of Union
A plan Benjamin Franklin proposed that would support the British in driving out the French during the French and Indian War. Nobody accepted the plan.
An agreement to boycott all British goods, developed by the Continental Congress.
An influential 17th century British philosopher who said that people have inalienable rights, and made people think about democracy. Thomas Jefferson drew upon his work in writing the Declaration of Independence.
A member of the Committee of Five who worked upon the Declaration of Independence. He was from Connecticut. Sherman offered the Connecticut Compromise during the Constitutional Convention.
A New Yorker, who was part of the Committee of Five. He was the first Secretary of Foreign Affairs for the United States. Other interesting things he developed were a steamboat with his French friend.
A French philosopher similar to John Locke who made people think about wrong forms of government.
abuse of power
Main Ideas of the Declaration of Independence:
People have certain "unalienable rights" (rights that cannot be taken away) to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. People establish governments to protect those rights. Government gets its power from the people. People have a right and a duty to change government to protect their rights.
First Battle of Fort Ticonderoga
This battle was won by American forces led by Ethan Allen and his Green Mountain Boys and Benedict Arnold (while he was still on the American side). The capture of the fort and its weapons helped break the standoff at the Siege of Boston.
Second Battle of Fort Ticonderoga
This was a siege operated by John Burgoyne of the British, and which forced the Americans to retreat from Fort Ticonderoga. The public outcry was large after the surrender of Fort Ticonderoga as it was believed to be almost impregnable.
Battle of Saratoga
This battle was regarded as the turning point in the war. General John Burgoyne surrendered his army at Saratoga. Burgoyne's plans to split New England from Quebec ultimately failed.
Battle of Bunker Hill
This battle is a misnomer as most of the fighting took place on nearby Breed's Hill. This battle was won by the British, but at such great cost, that it was not celebrated at all. This battle was famous for the quote, "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes."
Battle of Yorktown
Together with Rochambeau, George Washington led his Continental Army to a location where Lord Cornwallis thought was convenient to receive supplies. Little did he know he was being followed by the Continental Army and being blockaded by the French navy. This was the last major battle in the war. Cornwallis surrendered his troops, thus effectively ending the war, and starting negotiations.
Main Ideas of
the Declaration of Independence
People have certain
"unalienable rights" (rights that cannot be taken away) to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness
governments to protect those rights
gets its power from the people
People have a
right and a duty to change government to protect their rights
a place where George Washington and the Continental Army camped out during the bitter, cold winter of 1777-78 after the capture of Philadelphia by the British.
Battle of Trenton
After Washington's crossing of the Delaware River, he surprised the Hessians after their Christmas feast. This victory boosted morale across the army.
First Treaty of Paris
In 1763, after the French and Indian War, this treaty ceded French Canada and other former French areas to Britain.
Second Treaty of Paris
In 1783, after the Revolutionary War, Great Britain and the newly-formed United States negotiated many things, including land boundaries in this treaty.
Plain clothes, blended in with the terrain, easily hidden
Heavy, cumbersome uniforms, brightly colored, easy targets
Home territory, knew the terrain
On foreign soil, did not know the terrain
Used guerrilla warfare tactics; relied on ambush and surprise
Used standard military tactics
Local supplies; no distance to travel. Supplies were easily accessible and could get to them easily.
Distance was a problem. Supplies and troops came from over the Atlantic.
Foreign support; European allies
Little foreign support; few allies
Spirit, zeal, dedication, strong reason and motivation to fight, strong belief in a cause
Lacked motivation; depended on mercenaries to do the fighting.
Underestimated American capability, colonial leadership, and determination