Terms in this set (30)

17. A researcher wishes to assess the efficacy of the new Bloomberg method of training children to say /r/ accurately. He decides to use a single-subject design because he supervises in a university clinic that serves a number of children who have w/r substitutions. The researcher needs to keep several concepts in mind as he begins his research. Which one of the following concepts is FALSE?

A. ABAB deligns rely upon two conditions: (a) the A phase or no treatment phase, where target behaviors are base rated with no treatment, and (b) the B phase or treatment phase, where the target behavior is treated

B. In a multiple-baseline-across-subjects design, there are several subjects who are taught a behavior sequentially to show that only treated subjects change, and thus the treatment was effective.

C. An example of a multiple-baseline-across-settings design would be having a behavior (correct /r/ production) being sequentially taught in different settings to demonstrate that the behavior changed only in a treated setting and thus treatment was effective

D. For this researcher, an advantage of using a single-subject design to evaluate the efficacy of the Bloomberg method of training children to say /r/ accurately is that he can integrate research and clinical service by using the clients he and his students serve as subjects in an experiment that attempts to answer a significant clinical question

E. In the ABAB withdrawal design, a target behavior is base rated (e.g., /r/ in the A phase), taught to the subject (accurately produced /r/ in the B phase), reduced by teaching its counterpart or an incompatible behavior (teaching w/r in the A phase), and then taught again accurately produced /r/ in the B phase) to show that the treatment was effective
18. In Middleton City, a speech-language pathologist has a thriving private practice comprised heavily of non-native speakers of English. This clinician, Richard W., works to help his clients increase their intelligibility in English for business purposes. One way that Richard evaluates the success of the accent training he provides for these clients is to rate their overall intelligibility of speech before they start accent training and after 10 weeks of training. He finds that the clients appreciate these "before-and-after" measures of their progress. After serving a number of accent clients, Richard realizes that a potential problem with his "before-and-after" intelligibility ratings is that he has become accustomed to the clients' speech as he has gotten to know them; this could be impacting the "after" intelligibility rating. Richard goes to a local university and selects four speech-language pathology graduate students to watch "before-and-after" videos of his accent clients and independently rate each client's intelligibility. He finds to his dismay that the four students vary greatly in their ratings of the same clients. For example, one student might rate Mr. Fong, a Chinese client, as 95% intelligible after 10 weeks of accent training. A second student might rate Mr. Fang as only 60% intelligible after 10 weeks of accent training, whereas a third student might rate Mr. Fong as 45% intelligible, etc. In this situation, one can say that:

A. there is low interjudge reliability
B. thete is high interjudge reliability
C. there is moderate interjudge reliability
D. there is low intrajudge reliability
E. there is high intrajudge reliability
19. A hospital-based clinician is conducting an experiment with patients with aphasia. She is assessing the efficacy of the new, exciting Newton Aphasia Program (NAP) in increasing the word-retrieval skills of her patients. The experimental and control groups have been carefully matched on all variables. Halfway through the experiment the clinician finds that many of the experimental subjects attend church each Sunday and go to Sunday school after church. In Sunday school, there is bible study and a great deal of discussion. None of the control subjects attends church or Sunday school. At the end of the experiment, the clinician finds that the experimental group of subjects who received the NAP have improved significantly in their word-retrieval skills compared to the control subjects, who have been treated cantly ln their word-retrieval skills compared to the control subjects, who have been treated elude from her study?

A. The NAP was more successful in helping the experimental patients improve their word retrieval skills than were the traditional methods in helping patients in the control group improve their word retreival skills.

B. The NAP was not successful in helping the patients in the experimental group improve their word retrieval skills; the improvement was due to weekly church and Sunday school attendance

C. The fact that most experimental subjects attended Sunday school and church on a weekly basis was a possible confounding variable in the study, making it impossible to firmly conclude that the NAP alone caused the difference in the performance of the experimental and control groups

D. The NAP was only moderately successful in helping experimental group patients improve their word-retrieval skills.

E. Traditional word-retrieval therapy techniques are the most reliable and valid; the clinician should not attempt to use the NAP again
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