Developmental Psych Quiz3
Terms in this set (38)
A concept developed by David Elkind described the typical immaturities in adolescent's thinking which represent the flip side of formal operational thought. These immaturities in thinking manifest in six characteristic ways: 1) finding fault with authority figures, 2) argumentativeness, 3) indecisiveness, 4) apparent hypocrisy, 5) the imaginary audience, and 6) the personal fable.
Adolescents often do not recognize the difference between expressing an idea, such as conserving energy, and making the sacrifices necessary to live up to it, such as driving less.
With their greater flexibility in thinking, teens enjoy flexing their reasoning abilities and look for any hole in an argument to rebut it. They often become argumentative as they marshal facts and logic to build a case for, say, staying out later than their parents think they should.
Marcia's term for personal investment in an occupation or system of beliefs.
Concrete operational thinking
Thinking characteristic of Piaget's third stage of cognitive development. This type of thinking is characterized by the ability to use mental operations and thus think logically about actual events. This stage ranges between ages 7 - 11(12) years and thinking is limited to real situations in the here and now.
The ability to recognize that certain characteristics of objects (volume, number, and mass) remain the same despite changes in the appearance of the object. This type of logical thinking is the distinguishing characteristic of the concrete operational child and becomes increasingly sophisticated as the child ages.
Marcia's term for the period of conscious decision making related to identity formation.
Crisis of connection
Carol Gilligan's term for her observation that many adolescent girls showed a contrast between the feelings that they expressed and what they were actually feeling. For example, rather than vocalize her anger, a teenage girl might instead hide her feelings. This repression of feelings is associated with lower self-esteem.
Finding fault with authority figures
As a result of the development of FO thinking, adolescents can envision an ideal world and can see how the real world, for which they hold adults responsible, falls short. Convinced that they know better than adults how to run the world, they frequently find fault with their parents.
An identity status that is characterized by no crisis (meaning that they have not spent time considering alternatives), but a commitment has been made based on other people's plans for their life.
Formal operational (FO) thinking
Piaget's fourth and last stage of cognitive development, characterized by the ability to think abstractly. Thinking abstractly gives the teen more flexible ways to manipulate information. No longer limited to the here and now, they can think hypothetically and imagine what might be. They can use symbols for symbols as in algebra. They can also imagine multiple possibilities and form and test hypotheses. Development of this stage is dependent on both brain maturation and learning experiences.
Ability to develop, consider, and test hypotheses.
This acronym refers to the Imaginary Audience Scale which Elkind developed to measure the level of
self -consciousness associated with his concept of the imaginary audience. An example of an item from the scale is: Let's say some adult visitors come to your school and you are asked to tell them a little bit about yourself, would you like that, not like it, or not care one way or the other.
An identity status that is characterized by commitment to choices made following a crisis, a period of considering alternatives.
An identity status that is characterized by absence of commitment and lack of serious consideration of alternatives (no crisis).
Marcia's term for states of ego development that depends on the presence or absence of crisis and commitment.
Identity vs. role confusion
Erikson's fifth stage of psychosocial development in which adolescents seek to develop a coherent sense of self, including their role in society or experience confusion about themselves.
Adolescents can keep many alternatives in mind at the same time with their new thinking abilities yet may lack effective strategies for choosing among them. They may have trouble making up their minds even about simple things as deciding what to wear to school.
Reasoning that involves logical steps such as looking at a flattened ball of clay and saying that "nothing was added and nothing was taken away, therefore the amount of clay is the same."
An identity status in which a person is currently considering alternatives (in crisis) and seems headed for commitment though none has been made as of yet.
This characteristic of adolescent egocentrism refers to teens' intense self-centeredness. Elkind theorizes that teens see themselves as special, unique, and not subject to the rules that govern the rest of the world. They think that they are invulnerable, like the hero or heroine in a story. These beliefs underlie much risky, self-destructive behavior such as engaging in unprotected sex.
The imaginary audience
This characteristic of adolescent egocentrism refers to teens' intense self-consciousness. Adolescents in the stage of formal operations can think about thinking - their own and other people. However, in their preoccupation with their own mental state, adolescents often assume that everyone else is thinking about the same thing they are: themselves. A teenage girl may be mortified if she wears "the wrong thing" to a party, thinking that everyone else must be looking askance at her.
Authoritative parenting style
In this style of parenting, parents score highest on all four dimensions with a goal of helping the child become a self-regulating adult. They score highest on the control dimension because they set and enforce boundaries, but also use praise and encouragement for appropriate behavior. Their high scores on the three other dimensions reflect their age appropriate expectations for their children's behavior and their respect for what their children have to say as well as being loving, accepting and involved in their lives. This style correlated with children who were happy, energetic, competent, and the most self-reliant and goal oriented.
The second level of Kohlberg's theory in which standards of authority figures are internalized as a "conscience" and includes stage 3 ( Being a good person) and stage 4 (A sense of duty).
Double LLT formula
This phrase refers to the formula for parenting that involves love, limits, and time.
Ethic of Care
Carol Gilligan's theory about women's changes in moral reasoning. She argues that Kohlberg's theory gives a higher place to the masculine values of justice and fairness than to feminine values of compassion, responsibility, and caring. Her stages show changes in one's sense of responsibility to others.
Fear of punishment stage
This stage is the first of Kohlberg's stages and reasoning reflects a concern for avoiding punishment.
Good boy/girl stage
This third stage of Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning involves reasoning about living up to one's conscience of what a good person should do. People in this stage think of other's feelings and can evaluate the motives of behind another's action.
This stage is the second of Kohlberg's stages and reasoning reflects a concern for "what's in it for me."
A theory of the development of moral reasoning in which six stages are described. At the heart of each stage is the concept of justice. The stages were developed on the basis of subjects' responses to moral dilemmas which revealed their explanations for why a person should or should not do something.
In this technique for encouraging moral development, a caregiver reflects back exactly what the child has done wrong, such as "You took the toy without asking for it. " This language contrasts with whitewashing (giving the child excuses for their mistake) or blackwashing (going hysterical over what the child has done wrong).
Using this technique to encourage moral development, an authority figure behaves in socially appropriate ways which the child observes. A parent, for example, may return an item mistakenly unpaid for to a store in the child's presence.
One stage up reasoning
In this technique for encouraging moral development, a caregiver gives reasons for a course of action that reflect reasoning one stage up from where the child's reasoning falls. An eight year old may be reasoning at Kohlberg's stage 2 (What's in it for me?) and the caregiver explains why a behavior is a good or bad choice using stage 3 reasoning (Thinking of others).
The third level of Kohlberg's theory in which people base judgments on reason, rather than feelings. They consider conflicts between moral standards and make judgments on the basis of principles of right, fairness, and justice. This level includes stage 5 (recognition of imperfections in society's social system of justice) and stage 6 (adherence to a universal ethical standard, or set of such standards).
The first level of Kohlberg's theory in which control is external and rules are obeyed in order to gain rewards or avoid punishment (stage 1) or out of self-interest (stage 2). Both stages reflect a concern for the external consequences of one's actions.
Sense of duty stage
In Kohlberg's fourth stage, people's reasoning shows a concern for doing one's duty, showing respect for higher authority, and maintaining the social order. They consider an act wrong, regardless of motive or circumstances if it violates a rule or harms others.
Social contract stage
In the fifth stage of Kohlberg's theory, people think in rational terms and value the will of the majority and the welfare of society. They recognize that laws may be imperfect and not meet the needs of the minority though they believe in the long run it is better for society if the law is obeyed.
Universal ethical standards stage
People do what they think is right, not based on a concern for being a good person, but on an ethical principle or a set of principles. They act in accordance with these internalized ethical principles regardless of legal restrictions.