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Genetics Exam 3
Differences between rna and dna
carries info from DNA and is template for polypeptide synthesis
RNA molecules that are components of ribosomal subunits (4 in eukaryotes and 3 in prokaryotes)
small RNA molecule that translates a codon into an amino acid in protein synthesis.
three base sequence complementary to a specific codon in mRNA
DNA codes for ___, RNA codes for ____
making RNA strand from DNA
making a polypeptide under the direction of an mRNA molecule
sequence if three adjacent nucleotides in an mRNA molecule, specifying either an amino acid or a stop signal in protein synthesis.
# of basepairs and the complexity of the organism have no correlation
deoxyribose, phosphoric acid, and a base
compenents of DNA
A, G. Double ring.
C,T. Single ring.
how many hydrogen bonds on G-C
how many bonds are in A-T
both parental strands are maintained
where replication begins
where parental strands seperate and new strands start
generating a fork
hydrolyzes ATP to drive unwinding
single stranded binding protein
stabilizes the DNA strands after they split so they don't go back together
swivel mechanism that relieves the stress of unwinding
function of DNA polymerase that removes the last nucleotide in case of error
stiches together the pieces of a lagging strand
1. recognize a single restriction site
2. recognized without regard to source of DNA
3. Number of cuts=number of restriction sites present
characteristics of restriction enzymes
dideoxy sequencing method
lacks the 3'-OH group so synthesis terminates. Used to show order of bases.
enzyme that initiates RNA synthesis. Doesn't need primer.
RNA polymerase I
type of polymerase in eukaryote that is used for ribosomal DNA
RNA polymerase II
transcribes all protein coding genes and some small nuclear RNAs
RNA polymerase III
transfer RNA, 5s component of ribosomal RNA
RNA molecule produced from DNA template. Sometimes serves as mRNA, but in Eukaryotes it's processed first
introns, exons, poly-a tail, cap
Compenents of mRNA splicing
nuclear particles where RNA splicing takes place
small ribonucleo-protein particles U1, U2, U3, U5, U6
3 adjacent bases in mRNA
3 adjacent bases in tRNA
evidence for genetic code
3 bases inserted or deleted and proteins are still synthesized.
mutations that add or delete a base pair and shift the reading frame
the first two base pairs are what are most important in a codon, the third is more flexible.