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clear/transparent, anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus a visual image(admits light into the eye)
White of the eye; connective tissue that maintains the shape of the eyeball, provides a site for muscle attachment
diaphragm consisting of thin overlapping plates that can be adjusted to change the diameter of a central opening(pupil)
(The pigmented part of the eye when we look through the cornea.)
black adjustable circular opening in the center of the iris through which light passes as it enters the eye
a biconvex, transparent, flexible, avascular structure that allows precise focusing of light onto the retina, composed of epithelium and lens fibers( lens epithelium, lens fibers)(Cloudy-Cataract;changes shape to help focus images on the retina)
"Eye shine" in nocturnal mammals is different from the "red eye" seen in some flash photographs. Eye shine is the reflection of light off the tapetum lucidum. What visual mechanism might explain red eye?
Due to the bright light reflecting off the back of the retina
What is the consensual reflex of the pupil?
Increase or decrease of one pupil when the other pupil is exposed to a respective decrease or increase in light.
How does vitreous humor differ from aqueous humor in terms of location and viscosity?
Vitreous humor is located in the posterior cavity and is more viscous (thicker) than aqueous humor. Aqueous humor is located in the anterior cavity and is more watery.
The iris of the eye has what function?
The iris controls the size of the pupil.
Which in turn, controls the amount of light entering the eye
What do the numbers 20/100 mean for visual acuity?
A person with this vision can see at 20 feet what an average sighted person can see at 100 feet.
What is astigmatism?
Defect in cornea or lens that causes an uneven bending of the light rays in that area of the eye
Outer most layer, sclera & cornea
I.) Mechanical support & some physical protection
II.) Attachment site for muscles
III.) Assist in focusing
Vascular tunic (uvea)
Middle layer(the part of the eye that contains the iris and ciliary body and choroid-uvea)
I.) Route for blood vessels & lymphatics
II.) Regulate amount of light
III.) Secrete & reabsorb aqueous humor within eye chamber
IV.) Control shape of lens
a vascular network, many melanin containing pigment cells, appears black in color, prevents the reflection of light inside the eye(in vascular tunic)
-between the retina and the sclera.provides nourishment to the outer portion of the retina
Ciliary ring: a thickened ring of tissue surrounding the lens, composed of smooth muscle bundles (ciliary muscles), anchors the suspensory ligament that holds the lens in place, changes shape of the lens
-Ciliary process: produces aqueous humor ring of muscle behind the peripheral iris that controls the power of the lens,
ring of fibers that radiate from the edge of the lens & attach it to the ciliary body. Help change the shape of the lens.
Nervous tunic (retina)
I.) Pigmented part
II.) Neural part
lines the posterior two-thirds of the eye. Since a significant portion of the retina is made up of nerve fibers that carry light impulses to the optic nerve it has been described as an extension of the brain
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information(Innermost layer of eye;back wall of the eyeball)has over 126 million photoreceptor cells which respond to light,
-Where visual image arrives, no rods,
-a yellowish central area of the retina that is rich in cones and that mediates clear detailed vision,
- a yellow spot on the retina that mediates the clearest, most detailed vision(responsible for central vision)
Highest concentration of cones, center of macula lutea, an area of the retina where vision is the clearest and there are no rods at all(the central focus area of the retina )
location through which nerves exit and blood vessels enter the eye, no photoreceptor cells, the "blind spot" of the eye
the cranial nerve that serves the retina;
-carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain
prevent perspiration from entering the eyes and help shade the eyes, function: keeps sweat from entering eye, and shade from sun
consist of five tissue layers, protect the eyes from foreign objects (eyelashes help), help lubricate the eyes by spreading tears over their surface, lubricating glands associated with the eyelids; meibomian glands and sebaceous glands, ciliary glands lie btw the hair follicles
is determined by the amount of melanin present, large amounts of melanin (Brown or black eyes) less melanin (light brown, green, or grey eyes) even less melanin (blue eyes)
fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye, supports, nourishes, and removes wastes for the cornea, which has no blood vessels, produced by the ciliary processes as a blood filtrate, returned to the circulation through the sclera venous sinus(watery)
fills the vitreous chamber, contributes to intraocular pressure, helps maintain the shape of the eyeball, holds the lens and retina in place, functions in the refraction of light in the eye(gel)
bending of light, light striking a concave surface refracts outward (divergence), light striking a convex surface refracts inward (convergence), converging light rays meet at the focal point and are said to be focused
Normal resting condition of the lens
relaxation of the ciliary muscles causes the lens to flatten, producing the emmetropic eye
1. Accommodation by the lens*
contraction of the ciliary muscles causes the lens to become more spherical, change in the lens shape enables the eye to focus on objects that are less than 20 ft. away
Structure and function of Retina
Pigmented layer of the retina provides a black backdrop for increasing visual acuity, Rods and cones synapse with bipolar cells, bipolar cells synapse with ganglion cells, which form optic nerve
responsible for non vision, vision in low illumination (night vision), rod shaped photoreceptive part of the rods contains about 700 double layered membranous discs- discs contain rhodopsin a purple pigment consisting of the protein opsin covalently bound to a yellow photosensitive pigment called retinal (derived from vitamin A)
Exposure to light activates rhodopsin, rhodopsin is split by light into retinal and opsin, eventually resulting in an action potential
Responsible for; color vision, visual acuity
three types: each type has a different type of iodopsin photopigment, pigments are most sensitive to blue, red, and green light, perception of many colors results from mixing the ratio of the different types of cones that are active at a given moment
Ganglion cell axons
form the optic nerve, optic chiasm, and optic tracts, extend to the thalamus and synapse, then to the neurons from the optic radiations that project to the visual cortex
the ability to judge relative distances of an object from the eyes and is a property of binocular vision, binocular vision results because a slightly different images is seen by each eye
Inferior Rectus Muscle
Depresses the eye and turns it medially and is controlled by the oculomotor nerve.
Inferior Oblique Muscle
Elevates eye and turns it laterally and is controlled by the oculomotor nerve
Superior Oblique Muscle
Depresses eye and turns it laterally and is controlled by the trochlear nerve.
is a layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrate animals, that lies immediately behind or sometimes within the retina. It reflects visible light back through the retina, increasing the light available to the photo receptors. This improves vision in low-light conditions
The ________ transmits electrical impulses from the retina to the brain. It connects to the back of the eye near the macula. When examining the back of the eye, a portion of the ________ called the optic disc can be seen.
The colored part of the eye is called the _____. It controls light levels inside the eye similar to the aperture on a camera.
The _______ is the opening in the center of the iris. The size of the _____ determines the amount of light that enters the eye. The _____ size is controlled by the dilator and sphincter muscles of the iris. Doctors often evaluate the reaction of ______ to light to determine a person's neurological function.
The ________ is the thin, watery fluid that fills the space between the cornea and the iris (anterior chamber). It is continually produced by the ciliary body, the part of the eye that lies just behind the iris. This fluid nourishes the cornea and the lens and gives the front of the eye its form and shape.
The ________ is a thick, transparent substance that fills the center of the eye. It is composed mainly of water and comprises about 2/3 of the eye's volume, giving it form and shape. The properties of the ________ allow the eye to return to its normal shape if compressed.
The crystalline ______ is located just behind the iris. Its purpose is to focus light onto the retina. The nucleus, the innermost part of the ________, is surrounded by softer material called the cortex. The ______ is encased in a capsular-like bag and suspended within the eye by tiny "guy wires" called zonules.
The ______ is a multi-layered sensory tissue that lines the back of the eye. It contains millions of photoreceptors that capture light rays and convert them into electrical impulses. These impulses travel along the optic nerve to the brain where they are turned into images
The ______ lies between the retina and sclera. It is composed of layers of blood vessels that nourish the back of the eye.
One function of the _______ is the production of aqueous humor, the clear fluid that fills the front of the eye. It also controls accommodation by changing the shape of the crystalline lens.
Extrinsic Eyeball Muscles consists of:
4 rectus muscles; superior, inferione, lateral, and medial. 2 oblique muscles; superior and inferior
3 layers of the eyeball
Fibrous layer (no blood, dense CT), vascular layer (pigmented), inner layer (retina)
Visual Signaling Pathway
1. AP from ganglion cells (optic nerve) 2. partial crossing at optic chiasma 3. projection as optic tract 4. most synapse on LGH in thalamus 5. project to primary visual cortex of occipital lobe
Action potential is sent from:
1._______and_______ -->_________-->__________whose axons converge and leave the retina at the________-->_______-->________-->_________-->________-->______________
1. rods and cones, bipolar layer, ganglion cells, optic disk, optic nerve, optic chaisma, optic tract, thalamus, visual cortex of occipital lobe
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