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Chapter 23 Study Guide
Terms in this set (14)
Principal and accessory organs of the urinary system
Kidneys: main organ
Ureters, urethra, urinary bladder
Name, locate, and functions of each organ in urinary system
Kidneys: Retroperitoneal position against post. wall of abdomen, process blood and form urine as waste to be excreted
Ureters: medial side of the kidneys, transport urine from kidneys to bladder
Urethra: floor of bladder to exterior of the body, serves to excrete urine, and in males, excrete semen.
Bladder: behind the pubic symphysis, in front of rectum. Reservoir for urine before it is excreted, and expels urine from the body with the urethra.
Microscopic structure of the kidney, including: nephron, corpuscle, tubule, glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, PCT, DCT, loop of Henle, peritubular capillaries, vasa recta.
Nephron: most abundant in the kidney; functions in blood plasma processing and urine formation
Includes the Renal Corpuscle, which is made of the Glomerulus (capillary network) and Bowman's capsule, and the Renal Tubule, including the PCT, DCT, and Henle Loop. All play a role in filtering fluids and excreting waste products.
Define: Filtration, Reabsorption, and Secretion in relation to formation of urine in the kidneys.
Filtration: movement of water and protein-free solutes from blood plasma in glomerulus across glomerular capsule, capsular membrane, and into capsular space of Bowman capsule
Reabsorption: movement of molecules out of the various segments of the tubule and into the peritubular blood
Secretion: movement of molecules out of peritubular blood and into the tubule for secretion
3 body systems besides the urinary system that perform excretion
Integumentary, Digestive, Respiratory
Changes in total body water content from infancy to adulthood
Adulthood: Males: 60%, Females: 50%
Total body water content comparison in men and women
Men and women compare with total body water content as their TBWC can depend on adipose tissue, more or less. More obese people have less body water content, more slender people have more body water content. Also advancing age and kidney function.
Compartments of extracellular fluid
Plasma and interstitial fluid
Define Electrolytes, and compare major electrolytes between intracellular fluid and extracellular fluid.
Electrolytes: compounds that will dissolve when placed in solution. Intracellular contains potassium and magnesium, and extracellular contains sodium and calcium.
Roles of ADH, ANH, aldosterone in maintaining water balance.
ADH decreases fluid volume, ANH increases fluid volume, and aldosterone decreases fluid volume; works with ADH.
Define and describe dehydration and edema
Dehydration: decrease in total body water, symptoms can be thirst and severe cases include kidney failure.
Edema: presence of abnormal amounts of fluid in intercellular spaces in the body. Presents as swelling.
Define the pH scale, and the difference between an acid and a base.
pH scale: represents how many hydrogen ions are present in a solution, acid or base. An acid represents more hydrogen ions, a base represents less hydrogen ions. pH of 2 is more acidic, pH of 10 is more basic or almost alkaline.
Define the normal physiologic pH, define acidosis and alkalosis.
Normal pH: 7.4
Acidosis: blood pH less than 7.35
Alkalosis: blood pH more than 7.45
Define Metabolic and Respiratory Acidosis and Alkalosis, give examples of each.
Metabolic Alkalosis: increase in metabolic rate (sympathetic response)
Metabolic Acidosis: decrease in metabolic rate (parasympathetic response)
Respiratory Alkalosis: increase in respiratory rate (hyperventilation)
Respiratory Acidosis: decrease in respiratory rate (hypoventilation)
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