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What modality is best for LI surveys? 2nd? longest and most labor intensive?

US/ endoscopy; contrast radiography

In which animal does the cecum usually contain gas?


What are the three major parts of the colon?

ascending, transverse, descending

What direction are rads taken for LI surveys?

2 orthagonal

T/F LI survey radiographs are taken when the bladder is full to provide some contrast.

F; empty

What should the diameter of the normal colon be?

less than the length of L7

What are indications for contrast studies of the LI?

narrowing or strictures of the LI w/ endoscopy, or intra/extra mural lesions w/ normal endoscopic exam

How is the mucosal surface best seen w/ LI contrast studies?

double contrast barium enema

What are the layering echogenicites of the LI? what makes them harder to see?

hyper, hypo,hyper,hypo, hyper; thinner than the SI wall

Why would the dogs cecum be hard to US?

usually filled w/ gas

What abdominal structure is located near the right kidney in the cat and is easily ID'ed on US b/c of its hyperechoic submucosal layer?

the cecum

Plaque-like lesions resulting in contrast filling defects and mucosal irregularities are indicative of ______ mural lesions while narrowing of the lumen, displacement of the bowel and adjacent viscera are indicative of _____ mural lesions.

intra; extra

Impactions, mechanical obs. narrowed pelvic inlet, strictures and foreign bodies are all causes of ______ dilation of the LI.


Chronic constipation, spinal abnormalities, neuromuscular disorders, perineal hernias and congenital abnormalities are all causes of?


Diffuse enlargment of the colon due to functional/mechanial ileus and ineffective motility is aka?


T/F you need an entire LI contrast study to dx large lesions and or colon position.

F; parital studies are ok

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