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81 terms

Definitions

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Lateral line system
series of sensory organs under the skin that detects changes in pressure waves
Swim bladder
gas-filled sac that allows bony fish to regulate buoyancy
Gill cover
hard plate, operculum, covers gills, flexing allows water to pump over gills
Ray-finned fishes
parallel bony rays support and stiffen fins; no muscles in fins
Lobe-finned fishes
paired fins that consist of a long, fleshy, muscular lobe; supported by central co-jointed bones
Amniotic egg
chorion - allows oxygen entry
amnion - fluid-filled cavity
yolk sac - provides food
allantois - excretes waste
Monotremes
Egg-laying mammals; duck-billed platypus, short-nosed and long-nosed echidna
Cloaca
found in monotremes; single opening for digestive and reproductive tracts
Marsupials
pouched mammals; egg has no shell; kangaroo and opposum
Placental mammals
produce true placenta that nourished embryo throughout development
Tissues
groups of cells that are similar in structure and function
Germ layers
endoderm
mesoderm
ectoderm
4 primary tissues
epithelial
connective
muscle
nerve
Organs
combos of different tissues that form a structural and functional unit
Organ systems
groups of organs that cooperate to perform the major activities of the body; vertebrate body contains 11
Dorsal body cavity
within skull and vertebrae
Ventral body cavity
bounded by rib cage and vertebral column
Thoracic cavity
heart and lungs
Abdominopelvic cavity
most organs
Peritoneal cavity
coelomic space
Pericardial cavity
around the heart
Pleural cavity
around the lungs
Epithelium
epithelial membrane, covers every surface of vertebrate body
Basal surface
secured side
Apical surface
free side
Goblet cells
found in simple columnar epithelium; secrete mucus
Exocrine glands
connected to epithelium by a duct; sweat, sebaceous and salivary glands
Endocrine glands
ductless; secretions (hormones) enter blood
Matrix
abundant extracellular material; protein fibers and ground substance
Fibroblasts
produce and secrete extracellular matrix
Collagen
supports tissue
Elastin
makes tissue elastic
Chondrocytes
cartilage cells that live within lacunae in the ground substances
Osteocytes
bone cells; remain alive in a matrix hardened with calcium phosphate; communicate through canaliculi
Erythrocytes
red blood cells; carry oxygen
Leukocytes
white blood cells (fight infection)
Thrombocytes
platelets (blood clotting)
Granular Leukocytes
Neutrophyls
Eosinophyls
Basophyls
Agranular Leukocytes
Monocytes
Lymphocytes (B and T cells)
Muscles
motors of vertebrate bodies (smooth, skeletal, and cardiac)
Myofibrils
contain ordered actin and myosin filaments; contract the muscle fibers
Intercalated disks
enable cardiac muscle cells to form a single functioning unit
3 parts of neurons
cell body
dendrites
axon
Cell body
contains the nucleus
Dendrites
highly branched extensions; conduct electrical impulses TOWARD cell body
Axon
single cytoplasmic extension; conducts impulses AWAY from cell body
Neuroglia
do not conduct electrical impulses; support and insulate neurons and eliminate foreign materials in and around neurons
Central nervous system (CNS)
brain and spinal cord
Integration and interpretation of input
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
nerves and ganglia; communication of signal to body
Negative feedback
used to maintain internal constancy
Integrating center
where information detected by sensors is fed; compares conditions to set point
Effector
muscle or gland that increases or decreases activity to bring internal conditions back to set point
Hypothalamus
detect changes in body temperature
Antagonistic effectors
have "push-pull" action; increase activity of one, decrease activity in other
Positive feedback
enhance a change; examples include blood clotting and contraction of uterus during childbirth
Gastrovascular cavity
found in cnidarians and flatworms; has only one opening and no specialized regions
Mucosa
epithelium that lines interior, or LUMEN, of the tract
Submucosa
connective tissue
Muscularis
double layer of smooth muscles
Serosa
epithelium that covers external surface of tract
Crop
storage of food; no digestion takes place
Proventriculis
glandular part of stomach; initial digestive enzymes are released
Gizzard
also known as the ventriculus; muscular chamber that uses ingested pebbles to pulverize food
Bolus
processed lump of food
Peristalsis
moves food down to stomach
Stomach
has convoluted surface, allowing for expansion; contains extra layer of smooth muscle for mixing food w/ gastric juice
Parietal cells
secrete HCl and intrinsic factors (for vit B12 absorption)
Chief cells
secrete pepsinogen
Pepsinogen
inactive form of pepsin
Chyme
mixture of partially digested food and gastric juices
Small intestine
consists of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum; epithelial wall is covered w/ villi which are covered w/ microvilli
Pancreas
pancreatic fluid is secreted into duodenum through pancreatic duct
Enzymes released by pancreas
trypsin
chymotrypsin
pancreatic amylase
lipase
Liver
body's largest organ; secretes bile into duodenum; consists of bile pigments and bile salts
Gallbladder
stores and concentrates bile
Chylomicrons
reassembled fatty acids and monoglycerides that have diffuesd into epithelial cells; enter lymphatic system before the circulatory system
Large intestine
colon; no digestion occurs; 4% absorption; waste material concentrated
Rectum
compacted feces stored until it can be eliminated through anus
Ruminants
4-chambered stomach (rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum); cellulose-degrading microbes
Hind-gut fermentors
cellulose digested in cecum; single-chambered stomach; regurgitation not possible
Coprophagy
eat feces to absorb nutrients