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Multicultural quiz 2: Ch 7, 8, 9
Terms in this set (105)
what is learned
Individuals recognize how important language is
when the use of language no longer connects people to others or when they are denied the use of their language what occurs?
a set of rules about the use of words in the creation of messages.
Including spoken (oral) language and
written (non-oral) language
What means consisting of words
words, actions, or objects that stand for or represent a unit of meaning
Five sets of rules combined to create verbal code, or language
Phonology, morphology, semantics, pragmatics, and syntax are...
The basic sound units of a language
The rules of combining phonemes
What constitute the phonology of language
Phonemes are combined
morphemes are created when
smallest unit of meaning in a language
study of the meaning of words
public, objective, and legal meanings of a word
ex: words found in a dictionary or law book
words that are personal, emotionally charged, private, and specific to a particular person
the relationship of words to one another
the effect of language on human perceptions and behaviors
how language is actually used
A subtle knowledge of both expected meanings of the words (semantics) and the intended effects (pragmatics)?
What does humor require?
the use of verbal signs to understand the verbal sign of another language.
Usually refers to the transfer of written verbal codes between language
refers to the oral process of moving from one code to another
Goal of interpreting from one language to another and is to represent the source language as closely as possible
good interpretation and translation
when the interpreter seeks a word in the target language that has the same meaning in the source language
when interpreters seek to understand the intended meaning of idiomatic phrases and translate them into other languages
idiomatic phrases - expressions that have a meaning contrary to the usual meaning of words
the word presented must have some meaning within the experiential framework of the person to whom the message is directed
cultural patterns being part of a person's definition of reality. Conversations with people of radically different cultural patterns requires making sense of the variety of concepts that each culture defines as real and good.
Benjamin Lee Whorf and Edward Sapir
The two names most often associated with the issues relating to relationships among languages, thought, and culture?
Theory of linguistic relativity
Sapir-Whorf invented what theory?
That language influences, or even determines the ways in which people think
Sapir and Whorf's proposal of language
Two types of theories of linguistic relativity
Firm (deterministic) version and "softer" position are what?
Firm version hypothesis
language functions like a prison, once people learn a language, they are irrevocably affected by its particular. Furthermore, it is never possible to translate effectively and successfully between languages, which makes competent intercultural communication an elusive goal
"Softer" position hypothesis
It is a less causal view of the nature of the language-thought relationship. In this version, language shapes how people think and experience their world, but this influences not unceasing. Instead, it is possible for people from different initial language systems to learn words and categories sufficiently similar to their own so that communicating can be accurate
Sapir and Whorf's major contribution to the study of intercultural communication
Shedding light to the integral relationship among thought, culture, and language was?
Variations in vocabulary
Eskimos have 7-50 different words to describe now.
The issue raised by the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is whether the person who grows up speaking the eskimo language actually perceives snow differently than someone who grew up in California
examples of variation in vocabulary
words for snow, the way cultures describe colors are all..
What is a language related to the perceptions of its users and shapes their experiences
Semantic and syntactic features
Powerful shapers of the way people experience the physical and social world
Both are features of language
simplify their understanding of people
According to Henri Tajfel, humans categorize themselves and others into different groups to...
Perceived ethnolinguistic vitality
the extent to which a culture maintains a powerful sense of identification with a particular language
There is high levels of ethnolinguistic vitality
that members of a culture will be unwilling to assimilate their linguistic behavior with other cultures that surround them means
Developer of the communication accommodation theory
People in intercultural conversations may choose to converge or diverge their communication behaviors to that of others
The communication accommodation theory was developed so that
interactants will converge their language use to that of their conversational partners by adapting their speech patterns to the behaviors of others
interactants' language use will diverge from their conventional partners and will thus accentuate their own cultural memberships, maintain their individuality, and underscore the differences between themselves and others
4 alternative versions of a language
versions of a language with distinctive vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation that are spoken by particular groups of people or within particular regions
refers to a set of words or terms that are shared by those with a common profession or experience
refers to a specialized language that is used by a large group within a culture to define the boundaries of their group from others who are in a more powerful position in society
The use of argot
keep those who are not part of the group from understanding what members say to one another
the selection of the language to be used in a particular interaction by individuals who can speak multiple languages
Multichannel process that is usually performed spontaneously; it typically involves a subtle set of nonlinguistic behaviors that are often enacted subconsciously
Nonverbal communication and verbal communication are
emphasizing a particular word or phrase
Nonverbal messages are often used to accent the verbal message by
How nonverbal messages function to complement verbal messages
clarifying, elaborating, explaining, reinforcing and repeating the meaning of verbal codes
winking when you mean the opposite of what you said
Nonverbal codes can contradict the verbal message
An example of this is..
Charles Darwin said that certain nonverbal displays are
5 universal nonverbal communication
1. same body parts used for non verbal expressions
2. nonverbal channels are used to convey similar information, emotions, values and self-disclosing messages
3. nonverbal messages accompany verbal communication and are use in art and ritual
4. the motives for using the nonverbal channels, such as when speech is impossible, are similar across cultures
5. nonverbal messages are used to coordinate and control a range of contexts and relationships that are similar across culture
the culture in which of they occur
Most forms of nonverbal communication can be interpreted only within the framework of
Governing when and under what circumstances various nonverbal expressions are required, preferred, permitted and prohibited.
Ex: how far apart people should stand when talking
How many possible interpretations can be imposed on a given instance of nonverbal communication?
suggests that behaviors are unique to special individuals or relationships, and they therefore have particular meanings only to these people
Regards in ways cultures differ
random, idiosyncratic and shared
not taught verbally, but learned directly through observation in a culture
the study of body movements
nonverbal behaviors that have a direct verbal counterpart. symbols that have been arbitrarily selected by members of a culture to convey their intended meanings
The meanings of emblems
learned within a culture
nonverbal behaviors that are directly tied to, or accompany, the verbal message
facial and body movements that show feelings and emotions. they're unconscious (i.e. blushing, look of surprise)
nonverbal behaviors that help to synchronize the back and forth nature of conversations
What are culture specific?
personal body movements that occur as a reaction to an individual's physical psychological state
Two important features of space
different needs for personal space and the messages that are used to indicate territoriality
the study of how people differ in their use of personal space
the need to protect and defend a particular spatial area. a set of behaviors that people display that they "own" or have the right to control the use of a particular geographic area
the expression of positive and negative feelings and emotions
the study of time, how people use, structure it, interpret it, and understand its passage
refers to the value or importance the members of a culture place on the passage of time
the implicit cultural rules that are used to arrange sets of experiences in some meaningful way
Technical time systems
the precise, scientific measurements of time that are calculated in such units of nanosecond
Formal time systems
refer to the ways in which the members of a culture describe and comprehend units of time
Informal time systems
refer to the assumptions cultures make about how time should be used or experienced
time system means that things should be done one at a time, and time is segmented into precise, small units
several things are being done at the same time
include many nonsuch sounds
chemical code system
body odor, sweat, tears, has, household smells
Dermal code system
the short-term changes in skin texture or sensitivity that result from physical or psychological reactions to the environment form
Physical code system
relatively unchanging aspects of the body form the __________ system:
Ex: weight, body shape, facial features
Logic of language
has to do with a culture's preferences for organizing ideas, presenting ideas in writing and presenting ideas in public speeches
English organizational preferences
starts with intro and thesis statement
the preferred paragraph structure in Japanese; indirect; thesis is typically hidden within the paragraph
What do Hindi culture's writing tend to do?
What type of conversations are high context and indirect; depend on shared knowledge?
the use of symbols to influence others
preferences for the organization of paragraphs among people from different language and cultural groups
Speaker responsible language
the speaker is expected to provide the structure and much of the specific meaning of the statements
speakers need to indicate only indirectly when they are discussing and what they want the listener to know when the conversation is over; listener is forced to construct meaning
what does a persuader offers to those she or he is trying to persuade?
the type of evidence that European Americans prefer
empirical evidence; physical evidence and eye witness; quasi logical evidence are all...
Considerations of presentational style
it is people that are persuasive, not ideas; no absolute truth
The Finnish are _______ likely to talk than European Americans
Cultures that speaks in proverbs and metaphors?
Ex: Arabic and Latino cultures
expressed in few words; concise
Japanese and Chinese
What is it called when Americans; talk using "I"?
what culture is succinct and contextual?
Instrumental style cultures
what cultures are goal-oriented and explicit?
more emotional and reliant on underlying meaning: preferred by collectivist cultures
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