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Chapter 10- Byzantine Empire
Terms in this set (45)
The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the western half of the Roman Empire was taken over by barbarians. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
Holy Roman Empire
Empire begun when the pope named Charlemagne emperor over the western Roman empire.
City founded by Constantine as the new capital of the Roman Empire; it became the capital of the Byzantine Empire after the fall of the west
Three Sacred Cities of Islam
Mecca, Medina, and Jerusalem
The name given by Romans to nomadic people who did not speak Greek or Latin and who did not adopt Roman Culture
a belief, principle, or set of beliefs held and taught by group of people
The truth that God, although one, is three Divine Persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
An open-air stadium where chariot races were held; where the Nika revolt began
Sacred images that represent Christ, Mary, the saints, or other sacred objects
A foreign soldier hired to fight for a country for pay; the Byzantine army grew weaker after Justinian because used these instead of citizens
A person who follows Islam
A religion based on the teachings of the prophet Mohammed which stresses belief in one god (Allah). It's holy book is the Quran. Followers are called Muslims.
A Muslim place of worship
the Holy book of Islam; Visions of the prophet Muhammad during his life
refers to those who support the traditionally accepted principles of the faith
Most famous example of Byzantine architecture, it was rebuilt under Justinian I in Constantinople as a church, but is currently a Mosque. It is considered one of the most beautiful buildings in the world.
Roman civil law collected and reformed, and reorganized by emperor Justinian
the bishop of Rome, head of the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
Church in the west in the Holy Roman empire that split off from the eastern church; headed by the pope in Rome,
Eastern Orthodox Church
Church that developed out of early Christianity in the Byzantine Empire, developed in the east in the Byzantine empire after splitting from Rome
The group of Turks who conquered the Byzantine Empire.
the wife of Justinian, she encouraged her husband to stay in Constntinople and fight the Nika Revolt.
Founder of Islam, Islam start when he had visions in of the angel Gabriel in a cave
Emperor who led the Byzantines to their last period of greatness; known as the bulgar slayer for defeating the Bulgarian army and recounquering much land
First Emperor of Rome to convert to Christianity
What were some of Constantine's accomplishments and contributions to the Roman empire?
Moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Constantinople, Passed the Edict of Milan, and called together the council of Nicaea
How did Constantine convert to Christianity?
During a battle, Constantine saw a Cross in the Sky the said would win the battle, when he won he converted to Christianity
What did the Edict of Milan do?
1. Stopped PERSECUTION based on religion
2. Gave FREEDOM of religion
3. Allowed for PUBLIC religious gatherings
4.Allowed Christianity to SPREAD farther and faster.
What is the Council of Nicaea?
A council called by Constantine to agree upon correct Christian doctrine in order to caste out false doctrine and settle some disputes of the time.
What false belief was the Council of Nicaea trying to correct?
Jesus was a created being
What did the council of Nicaea say define Jesus as?
100% God (divine) and 100% man (mortal)
What did the Council of Nicaea say about the trinity?
God is one God in 3 equal, divine, and eternal persons (3 in 1); God the father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit
What were some of Justinian's accomplishments and contributions to the Byzantine Empire?
He reconquered much of the western Roman Empire, He rebuilt the Hagia Sophia, He wrote the Justinian Code
What happened in the Nika Revolt and why?
People revolted against Justinian. His wife, Theodora, tells him not to run away and he sends his army and 30,000 people are killed.
Two reasons the people revolted against Justinian are because he:
1. JUSTINIAN TAXED PEOPLE HEAVILY TO FINANCE BUILDING PROJECTS.
2. HE IGNORED THE POSITIONS PEOPLE HELD IN SOCIETY AND THEIR PRIVILEGES.
to conquer; what the people were yelling as they revolted and tried to conquer the empire from Justinian
Why was Islam able to spread so quickly?
There was FREEDOM of religion in the Byzantine Empire.
Muslims used MILITARY conquest to overtake new regions by force and won many battles.
Muslims took control of the TRADE routes, like the Silk Road.
The great schism
the official split between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches that occurred in 1054 AD
Some Reasons for the Great Schism
-Dispute over the pope's authority and church leadership hierarchy
-Debate over use of icons
- Unleavened Bread debate
-Bible translations; debate between Greek and Latin
-Excommunication of bishops
A series of holy wars by European Christians to free Jerusalem from Muslim rule.
Cause of the Crusades
- Muslim Turks took control of the Holy Lands (Jerusalem)
-The emperor was afraid the Muslim Turks were threatening Constantinople
- The Byzantine emperor asked the Pope for help in regaining these lands for Christians.
-Pope Urban II agreed to help and called for the first Crusade.
Effects of the Crusades
-increased power and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope
-widened the split between the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox church
-increased trade between the east and west
-Stronger centralized governments
-weakened the Byzantine empire
The selling of the forgiveness of sins and a guaranteed way into heaven by the Roman Catholic Church in exchange for money or other necessities; this was given to many who participated in the crusades in exchange for their participation
similarities between Christianity and Islam
-Jesus will return
- belief in heaven and hell
- Jesus born of the virgin Mary
differences between Christianity and Islam
-Jesus is God
-Trinity (3 persons of God)
-Jesus died for our sins and rose again
-salvation by grace through faith in Jesus
-Jesus was just a prophet
-God has one person
-Jesus never died
-earn salvation through doing good works
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